Analysis of microplastics in drinking water and other clean water samples with micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy: minimum requirements and best practice guidelines

Type Article
Date 2021-10
Language English
Author(s) Schymanski Darena1, 2, Oßmann Barbara E.3, Benismail Nizar4, Boukerma KadaORCID5, Dallmann Gerald6, von Der Esch Elisabeth7, Fischer Dieter8, Fischer Franziska8, Gilliland Douglas9, Glas Karl10, Hofmann Thomas10, Käppler Andrea6, Lacorte Sílvia11, Marco Julie12, El Rakwe Maria5, Weisser Jana10, Witzig Cordula13, Zumbülte Nicole13, Ivleva Natalia P.ORCID7
Affiliation(s) 1 : Chemical and Veterinary Analytical Institute Münsterland-Emscher-Lippe (CVUA-MEL), Joseph-König-Straße 40, 48147, Münster, Germany
2 : Institute of Food Chemistry, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstr. 45, 48149, Münster, Germany
3 : Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority, Eggenreuther Weg 43, 91058, Erlangen, Germany
4 : Nestle Quality Assurance Center Vittel, 1020 Avenue Georges Clemenceau, 88800, Vittel, France
5 : Ifremer, REM/RDT/LDCM, 29280, Plouzané, France
6 : SGS Institut Fresenius GmbH, Königsbrücker Landstr. 161, 01109, Dresden, German
7 : Institute of Hydrochemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry and Water Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Elisabeth-Winterhalter-Weg 6, 81377, Munich, Germany
8 : Leibniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden (IPF), Hohe Straße 6, 01069, Dresden, Germany
9 : Joint Research Centre (JRC), European Commission, 21027, Ispra, Italy
10 : Chair of Food Chemistry and Molecular Sensory Science, Technical University of Munich, Lise-Meitner-Straße 34, 85354, Freising, Germany
11 : Department of Environmental Chemistry, IDAEA-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
12 : Danone Waters, 11 Avenue du Général Dupas, 74500, Evian les Bains, France
13 : TZW: DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser (German Water Centre), Karlsruher Straße 84, 76139, Karlsruhe, Germany
Source Analytical And Bioanalytical Chemistry (1618-2642) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2021-10 , Vol. 413 , N. 24 , P. 5969-5994
DOI 10.1007/s00216-021-03498-y
WOS© Times Cited 19
Keyword(s) Microplastic, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, Mi-(FT)IR spectroscopy, Bottled water, Drinking water, Clean water
Abstract

Microplastics are a widespread contaminant found not only in various natural habitats but also in drinking waters. With spectroscopic methods, the polymer type, number, size, and size distribution as well as the shape of microplastic particles in waters can be determined, which is of great relevance to toxicological studies. Methods used in studies so far show a huge diversity regarding experimental setups and often a lack of certain quality assurance aspects. To overcome these problems, this critical review and consensus paper of 12 European analytical laboratories and institutions, dealing with microplastic particle identification and quantification with spectroscopic methods, gives guidance toward harmonized microplastic particle analysis in clean waters. The aims of this paper are to (i) improve the reliability of microplastic analysis, (ii) facilitate and improve the planning of sample preparation and microplastic detection, and (iii) provide a better understanding regarding the evaluation of already existing studies. With these aims, we hope to make an important step toward harmonization of microplastic particle analysis in clean water samples and, thus, allow the comparability of results obtained in different studies by using similar or harmonized methods. Clean water samples, for the purpose of this paper, are considered to comprise all water samples with low matrix content, in particular drinking, tap, and bottled water, but also other water types such as clean freshwater.

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Schymanski Darena, Oßmann Barbara E., Benismail Nizar, Boukerma Kada, Dallmann Gerald, von Der Esch Elisabeth, Fischer Dieter, Fischer Franziska, Gilliland Douglas, Glas Karl, Hofmann Thomas, Käppler Andrea, Lacorte Sílvia, Marco Julie, El Rakwe Maria, Weisser Jana, Witzig Cordula, Zumbülte Nicole, Ivleva Natalia P. (2021). Analysis of microplastics in drinking water and other clean water samples with micro-Raman and micro-infrared spectroscopy: minimum requirements and best practice guidelines. Analytical And Bioanalytical Chemistry, 413(24), 5969-5994. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03498-y , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00706/81769/