A new potentially toxic dinoflagellate Fukuyoa koreansis sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) from Korean coastal waters: Morphology, phylogeny, and effects of temperature and salinity on growth

Type Article
Date 2021-11
Language English
Author(s) Li Zhun1, Park Joon Sang2, Kang Nam Seon3, Chomérat NicolasORCID4, Mertens KennethORCID4, Gu HaifengORCID5, Lee Kyun-Woo6, Kim Ki Hyun1, Baek Seung Ho7, Shin Kyoungsoon8, Han Kyong Ha2, Son Moon Ho9, Shin Hyeon Ho2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Biological Resource Center/Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Republic of Korea
2 : Library of Marine Samples, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea
3 : Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea, Seocheon 33662, Republic of Korea
4 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, F‐29900 Concarneau, France
5 : Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, China
6 : Marine Ecosystem and Biological Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Republic of Korea
7 : Risk Assessment Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea
8 : Ballast Water Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea
9 : National Institute of Fisheries Science, Busan, 619-705, Republic of Korea
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2021-11 , Vol. 109 , P. 102107 (13p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2021.102107
WOS© Times Cited 4
Keyword(s) Gambierdiscus, Growth rate, rRNA, SEM, Toxic dinoflagellate
Abstract

To clarify an unspecified toxic Gambierdiscus-like species isolated from seawaters off Jeju Island, Korea, its morphology and molecular phylogeny based on the small subunit (SSU) and partial large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene sequences were examined. Cells were narrow in ventral view and broad in lateral view with a smooth surface. The round thecal pores were evenly distributed, with an average diameter of 0.41 µm. Cell depth, width and height were 51.7 ± 4.5 μm, 43.0 ± 4.2 μm and 55.0 ± 4.7 μm, respectively, and depth-to-width (D/W) and height-to-width (H/W) ratios were 1.1 ± 0.2 μm and 1.3 ± 0.02 μm, respectively. The nucleus was located in the hypotheca. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that the cells displayed a plate formula of Po, 4′, 6′′, 6c, 6s, 5′′′ and 2′′′, and transmission electron microscope observation demonstrated that the cells contained crystal-like particles. Morphological features indicated that the unspecified Korean isolate belonged to the genus Fukuyoa, and based on the H/W and D/W ratios, the apical pore H/W ratio and thecal pore size, it could be differentiated from other Fukuyoa species. The phylogenetic analyses based on the SSU and LSU rRNA sequences revealed that the Korean isolate was nested within the genus Fukuyoa with high support, and it grouped with F. cf. yasumotoi isolated from Japan. Based on the morpho-molecular data, a new species, Fukuyoa koreansis sp. nov. is proposed. The maximum growth rate (0.254 d−1) of F. koreansis was observed at 25°C and a salinity of 25. The required levels of temperature and salinity for growth distinguished Fukuyoa koreansis from Gambierdiscus species.

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Li Zhun, Park Joon Sang, Kang Nam Seon, Chomérat Nicolas, Mertens Kenneth, Gu Haifeng, Lee Kyun-Woo, Kim Ki Hyun, Baek Seung Ho, Shin Kyoungsoon, Han Kyong Ha, Son Moon Ho, Shin Hyeon Ho (2021). A new potentially toxic dinoflagellate Fukuyoa koreansis sp. nov. (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) from Korean coastal waters: Morphology, phylogeny, and effects of temperature and salinity on growth. Harmful Algae, 109, 102107 (13p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2021.102107 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00725/83681/