Development of an Efficient Extraction Method for Harvesting Gymnodimine-A from Large-Scale Cultures of Karenia selliformis

Type Article
Date 2021-11
Language English
Author(s) Tang Zhixuan1, 2, Qiu Jiangbing1, 2, Wang Guixiang1, 2, Li Ying1, 2, Hess PhilippORCID3, Li Aifend1, 2
Affiliation(s) 1 : College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
2 : Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China
3 : Ifremer, DYNECO, Phycotoxins Laboratory, F-44000 Nantes, France
Source Toxins (2072-6651) (MDPI), 2021-11 , Vol. 13 , N. 11 , P. 793 (14p.)
DOI 10.3390/toxins13110793
WOS© Times Cited 3
Note This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins: Predicting and Cumulative Risk Assessment
Keyword(s) Karenia selliformis, gymnodimine, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), extraction method

Gymnodimine-A (GYM-A) is a fast-acting microalgal toxin and its production of certified materials requires an efficient harvesting technology from the large-scale cultures of toxigenic microalgae. In this study the recoveries of GYM-A were compared between several liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) treatments including solvents, ratios and stirring times to optimize the LLE technique for harvesting GYM-A from Karenia selliformis cultures, of which the dichloromethane was selected as the extractant and added to microalgal cultures at the ratio 55 mL L−1 (5.5%, v/v). The recovery of GYM-A obtained by the LLE technique was also compared with filtration and centrifugation methods. The stability of GYM-A in culture media were also tested under different pH conditions. Results showed that both the conventional filter filtration and centrifugation methods led to fragmentation of microalgal cells and loss of GYM-A in the harvesting processes. A total of 5.1 µg of GYM-A were obtained from 2 L of K. selliformis cultures with a satisfactory recovery of 88%. Interestingly, GYM-A obviously degraded in the culture media with the initial pH 8.2 and the adjusted pH of 7.0 after 7 days, but there was no obvious degradation in the acidic medium at pH 5.0. Therefore, the LLE method developed here permits the collection of large-volume cultures of K. selliformis and the high-efficiency extraction of GYM-A. This work provides a simple and valuable technique for harvesting toxins from large-scale cultures of GYM-producing microalgae.

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