Chemodiversity of Brevetoxins and Other Potentially Toxic Metabolites Produced by Karenia spp. and Their Metabolic Products in Marine Organisms

Type Article
Date 2021-12
Language English
Author(s) Hort Vincent1, Abadie EricORCID2, Arnich Nathalie3, Dechraoui Bottein Marie‐yasmine4, 5, Amzil ZouherORCID6
Affiliation(s) 1 : Laboratory for Food Safety, Pesticides and Marine Biotoxins Unit, ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
2 : MARBEC (MARine Biodiversity, Exploitation and Conservation), Université de Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, 34200 Sète, France
3 : Risk Assessment Directorate, ANSES (French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety), 94701 Maisons-Alfort, France
4 : Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, UMR 7035 ECOSEAS, 06103 Nice, France
5 : Federative Research Institute—Marine Ressources, Université Côte d’Azur, CNRS, 06108 Nice, France
6 : Ifremer (French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea), 44311 Nantes, France
Source Marine Drugs (1660-3397) (MDPI AG), 2021-12 , Vol. 19 , N. 12 , P. 656 (37p.)
DOI 10.3390/md19120656
WOS© Times Cited 3
Note This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Phycotoxins
Keyword(s) Karenia spp, marine biotoxins, brevetoxins, metabolic products, shellfish, marine organisms
Abstract

In recent decades, more than 130 potentially toxic metabolites originating from dinoflagellate species belonging to the genus Karenia or metabolized by marine organisms have been described. These metabolites include the well-known and large group of brevetoxins (BTXs), responsible for foodborne neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) and airborne respiratory symptoms in humans. Karenia spp. also produce brevenal, brevisamide and metabolites belonging to the hemi-brevetoxin, brevisin, tamulamide, gymnocin, gymnodimine, brevisulcenal and brevisulcatic acid groups. In this review, we summarize the available knowledge in the literature since 1977 on these various identified metabolites, whether they are produced directly by the producer organisms or biotransformed in marine organisms. Their structures and physicochemical properties are presented and discussed. Among future avenues of research, we highlight the need for more toxin occurrence data with analytical techniques, which can specifically determine the analogs present in samples. New metabolites have yet to be fully described, especially the groups of metabolites discovered in the last two decades (e.g tamulamides). Lastly, this work clarifies the different nomenclatures used in the literature and should help to harmonize practices in the future

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Hort Vincent, Abadie Eric, Arnich Nathalie, Dechraoui Bottein Marie‐yasmine, Amzil Zouher (2021). Chemodiversity of Brevetoxins and Other Potentially Toxic Metabolites Produced by Karenia spp. and Their Metabolic Products in Marine Organisms. Marine Drugs, 19(12), 656 (37p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3390/md19120656 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00735/84730/