Understanding the Dynamic of POMS Infection and the Role of Microbiota Composition in the Survival of Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas

Type Article
Date 2022-10-31
Language English
Author(s) Delisle LizennORCID1, Laroche Olivier1, Hilton Zoë1, Burguin Jean-François1, Rolton Anne1, Berry Jolene1, Pochon Xavier1, 2, Boudry PierreORCID3, Vignier Julien1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Cawthron Institute, Nelson, New Zealand
2 : Institute of Marine Science, University of Auckland, Warkworth, New Zealand
3 : Département Ressources Biologiques et Environnement, Ifremer, ZI de la pointe du diable, Plouzané, France
Source Microbiology Spectrum (2165-0497) (American Society for Microbiology), 2022-10-31 , Vol. 10 , N. 6 , P. e01959-22 (20p.)
DOI 10.1128/spectrum.01959-22
Keyword(s) OsHV-1, Pacific oyster, POMS, microbiome, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, droplet digital PCR
Abstract

For over a decade, Pacific oyster mortality syndrome (POMS), a polymicrobial disease, induced recurring episodes of massive mortality affecting Crassostrea gigas oysters worldwide. Recent studies evidenced a combined infection of the ostreid herpesvirus (OsHV-1 μVar) and opportunistic bacteria in affected oysters. However, the role of the oyster microbiota in POMS is not fully understood. While some bacteria can protect hosts from infection, even minor changes to the microbial communities may also facilitate infection and worsen disease severity. Using a laboratory-based experimental infection model, we challenged juveniles from 10 biparental oyster families with previously established contrasted genetically based ability to survive POMS in the field. Combining molecular analyses and 16S rRNA gene sequencing with histopathological observations, we described the temporal kinetics of POMS and characterized the changes in microbiota during infection. By associating the microbiota composition with oyster mortality rate, viral load, and viral gene expression, we were able to identify both potentially harmful and beneficial bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). We also observed a delay in viral infection resulting in a later onset of mortality in oysters compared to previous observations and a lack of evidence of fatal dysbiosis in infected oysters. Overall, these results provide new insights into how the oyster microbiome may influence POMS disease outcomes and open new perspectives on the use of microbiome composition as a complementary screening tool to determine shellfish health and potentially predict oyster vulnerability to POMS.

IMPORTANCE For more than a decade, Pacific oyster mortality syndrome (POMS) has severely impacted the Crassostrea gigas aquaculture industry, at times killing up to 100% of young farmed Pacific oysters, a key commercial species that is cultivated globally. These disease outbreaks have caused major financial losses for the oyster aquaculture industry. Selective breeding has improved disease resistance in oysters, but some levels of mortality persist, and additional knowledge of the disease progression and pathogenicity is needed to develop complementary mitigation strategies. In this holistic study, we identified some potentially harmful and beneficial bacteria that can influence the outcome of the disease. These results will contribute to advance disease management and aquaculture practices by improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind genetic resistance to POMS and assisting in predicting oyster vulnerability to POMS.

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How to cite 

Delisle Lizenn, Laroche Olivier, Hilton Zoë, Burguin Jean-François, Rolton Anne, Berry Jolene, Pochon Xavier, Boudry Pierre, Vignier Julien (2022). Understanding the Dynamic of POMS Infection and the Role of Microbiota Composition in the Survival of Pacific Oysters, Crassostrea gigas. Microbiology Spectrum, 10(6), e01959-22 (20p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1128/spectrum.01959-22 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00807/91870/