Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea

Type Publication
Date 2015-06
Language English
Copyright 2014 International Association for Gondwana Research. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Author(s) Dera Guillaume1, Prunier Jonathan1, Smith Paul L.2, Haggart James W.2, 3, Popov Evgeny4, Guzhov Alexander5, Rogov Mikhail6, Delsate Dominique7, Thies Detlev8, Cuny Gilles9, Puceat Emmanuelle10, Charbonnier Guillaume11, Bayon Germain12
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Toulouse 3, CNRS UMR 5563, Lab GET, OMP, F-31400 Toulouse, France.
2 : Univ British Columbia, Dept Earth Ocean & Atmospher Sci, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
3 : Geol Survey Canada, Vancouver, BC V6B 5J3, Canada.
4 : Saratov NG Chernyshevskii State Univ, Geol Fac, Dept Palaeontol, Saratov 400012, Russia.
5 : Russian Acad Sci, Inst Paleontol, Moscow 117997, Russia.
6 : Russian Acad Sci, Inst Geol, Moscow 119017, Russia.
7 : Museum Natl Hist Nat, L-2160 Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
8 : Leibniz Univ Hannover, Inst Geol, D-30167 Hannover, Germany.
9 : Nat Hist Museum Denmark, DK-1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
10 : Univ Bourgogne, CNRS UMR 6282, Lab Biogeosci, F-21000 Dijon, France.
11 : Univ Paris 11, CNRS UMR 8148, Lab IDES, F-91405 Orsay, France.
12 : IFREMER, Unite Rech Geosci Marines, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
Source Gondwana Research (1342-937X) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2015-06 , Vol. 27 , N. 4 , P. 1599-1615
DOI 10.1016/j.gr.2014.02.006
WOS© Times Cited 23
Keyword(s) Neodymium isotopes, Jurassic, Paleoclimate, Paleoceanography, Continental drainage
Abstract The breakup of Pangea and onset of growth of the Pacific plate led to several paleoenvironmental feedbacks, which radically affected paleoclimate and ocean chemistry during the Jurassic. Overall, this period was characterized by intense volcanic degassing from large igneous provinces and circum-Panthalassan arcs, new oceanic circulation patterns, and changes in heat and humidity transports affecting continental weathering. Few studies, however, have attempted to unravel the global interactions linking these processes over the long-term. In this paper, we address this question by documenting the global changes in continental drainage and surface oceanic circulation for the whole Jurassic period. For this purpose, we present 53 new neodymium isotope values (εNd(t)) measured on well-dated fossil fish teeth, ichthyosaur bones, phosphatized nodules, phosphatized ooids, and clastic sediments from Europe, western Russia, and North America.

Combined with an extensive compilation of published εNd(t) data, our results show that the continental sources of Nd were very heterogeneous across the world. Volcanic inputs from a Jurassic equivalent of the modern Pacific Ring of Fire contributed to radiogenic εNd(t) values (− 4 ε-units) in the Panthalassa Ocean. For the Tethyan Ocean, the average surface seawater signal was less radiogenic in the equatorial region (− 6.3), and gradually lower toward the epicontinental peri-Tethyan (− 7.4), western Russian (− 7.4) and Euro-Boreal seas (− 8.6). Different Nd sources contributed to this disparity, with radiogenic Nd influxes from westward Panthalassan currents or juvenile volcanic arcs in open oceanic domains, and substantial unradiogenic inputs from old Laurasian and Gondwanan shields for the NW Tethyan platforms. Overall, the εNd(t) values of Euro-Boreal, peri-Tethyan, and western Russian waters varied quite similarly through time, in response to regional changes in oceanic circulation, paleoclimate, continental drainage, and volcanism. Three positive shifts in εNd(t) values occurred successively in these epicontinental seas during the Pliensbachian, in the Aalenian-Bathonian interval, and in the mid-Oxfordian. The first and third events are interpreted as regional incursions of warm surface radiogenic currents from low latitudes. The Aalenian-Bathonian shift seems linked to volcanic outbursts in the NW Tethys and/or circulation of deep currents resulting from extensional events in the Hispanic Corridor and reduced influences of boreal currents crossing the Viking Corridor. In contrast, the εNd(t) signals decreased and remained very low (< − 8) during the global warming events of the Toarcian and Late Oxfordian - Early Tithonian intervals. In these greenhouse contexts, a latitudinal expansion of humid belts could have extended the drainage pathways toward boreal Nd sources of Precambrian age and increased the supply of very unradiogenic crustal-derived inputs to seawater. Finally, a brief negative εNd(t) excursion recorded in parallel with regional drops in seawater temperature suggests that southward circulation of cold unradiogenic Arctic waters occurred in the NW Tethys in the Callovian - Early Oxfordian. All these results show that changes in surface oceanic circulation resulting from the Pangean breakup could have regionally impacted the evolution of seawater temperatures in the NW Tethys.
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Dera Guillaume, Prunier Jonathan, Smith Paul L., Haggart James W., Popov Evgeny, Guzhov Alexander, Rogov Mikhail, Delsate Dominique, Thies Detlev, Cuny Gilles, Puceat Emmanuelle, Charbonnier Guillaume, Bayon Germain (2015). Nd isotope constraints on ocean circulation, paleoclimate, and continental drainage during the Jurassic breakup of Pangea. Gondwana Research, 27(4), 1599-1615. Publisher's official version : http://doi.org/10.1016/j.gr.2014.02.006 , Open Access version : http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00179/29015/