Morphology of First Zoeal Stage of Four Genera of Alvinocaridid Shrimps from Hydrothermal Vents and Cold Seeps: Implications for Ecology, Larval Biology and Phylogeny
|Author(s)||Hernandez-Avila Ivan1, 2, Cambon-Bonavita Marie-Anne3, Pradillon Florence1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer, Lab Environm Profond, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
2 : Univ Oriente, Dept Ciencias, Unidad Cursos Basicos, Margarita Isl, Venezuela.
3 : Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer, CNRS, Lab Microbiol Environm Extremes, UMR6197,Ifremer,UBO, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
|Source||Plos One (1932-6203) (Public Library Science), 2015-12 , Vol. 10 , N. 12 , P. -|
|WOS© Times Cited||8|
|Abstract||Alvinocaridid shrimps are endemic species inhabiting hydrothermal vents and/or cold seeps. Although indirect evidences (genetic and lipid markers) suggest that their larval stages disperse widely and support large scale connectivity, larval life and mechanisms underlying dispersal are unknown in alvinocaridids. Here we provide for the first time detailed descriptions of the first larval stage (zoea I) of four alvinocaridid species: Rimicaris exoculata and Mirocaris fortunata from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Alvinocaris muricola from the Congo Basin and Nautilocaris saintlaurentae from the Western Pacific. The larvae were obtained from onboard hatching of brooding females (either at atmospheric pressure or at habitat pressure in hyperbaric chambers) and from the water column near adult habitats, sampled with plankton pumps or sediment traps. Major characteristics of the alvinocaridid larvae include undeveloped mandible and almost complete absence of setation in the inner margin of the mouth parts and maxillipeds. Although the larvae are very similar between the four species studied, some morphological features could be used for species identification. In addition, undeveloped mouthparts and the large amount of lipid reserves strongly support the occurrence of primary lecithotrophy in the early stage of alvinocaridids. Although lecithotrophy in decapod crustaceans is usually associated with abbreviated larval development, as a mechanism of larval retention, morphological and physiological evidences suggest the occurrence of an extended and lecithotrophic larval stage in the Alvinocarididae. These traits permit the colonization of widely dispersed and fragmented environments of hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. Distribution of larval traits along the phylogenetic reconstruction of the Alvinocarididae and related families suggest that lecithotrophy/planktotrophy and extended/abbreviated development have evolved independently along related families in all potential combinations. However, the Alvinocarididae is the only taxa with a combination of lecithotrophy and extended larval development.|