||Villeneuve Laure1, Gisbert Enric2, Moriceau Jacques1, Cahu Chantal1, Zambonino-Infante Jose-Luis1
||1 : IFREMER, UMR1067, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
2 : IRTA, Ctr Aquicultura, Tarragona 43540, Spain.
||British Journal of Nutrition (0007-1145) (CABI), 2006-04 , Vol. 95 , N. 4 , P. 677-687
|WOS© Times Cited
||Retinoid pathway, Morphogenesis, Vitamin A, PUFA, Sea bass larvae
||The effect of the feeding period on larval development was investigated in European sea bass larvae by considering the expression level of some genes involved in morphogenesis. Larvae were fed a control diet except during three different periods (period A: from 8 to 13 d post-hatching (dph); period B: from 13 to 18 dph; period C: from 18 to 23 dph) with two compound diets containing high levels of vitamin A or PUFA. European sea bass morphogenesis was affected by these two dietary nutrients during the early stages of development. The genes involved in morphogenesis could be modulated between 8 and 13 dph, and our results indicated that retinoids and fatty acids influenced two different molecular pathways that in turn implicated two different gene cascades, resulting in two different kinds of malformation. Hypervitaminosis A delayed development, reducing the number of vertebral segments and disturbing bone formation in the cephalic region. These malformations were correlated to an upregulation of retinoic acid receptor gamma, retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4. An excess of PUFA accelerated the osteoblast differentiation process through the upregulation of RXR alpha and BMP4, leading to a supernumerary vertebra. These results suggest that the composition of diets devoted to marine fish larvae has a particularly determining effect before 13 dph on the subsequent development of larvae and juvenile fish.