||Tenerelli Joseph1, Reul Nicolas1, Mouche Alexis1, 2, Chapron Bertrand1
||1 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Oceang Spatiale, F-29200 Plouzane, France.
2 : Ctr Natl Etud Spatiales, F-75039 Paris, France.
||IEEE-Transactions on geoscience and remote sensing (0196-2892) (IEEE GRSS), 2008-03 , Vol. 46 , N. 3 , P. 659-674
|WOS© Times Cited
||Scattering, Remote sensing, Radiometry
||The "galactic glitter" phenomenon at L-band, i.e., the scattering of celestial sky radiation by the rough ocean surface, is examined here as a potential source of error for sea surface salinity (SSS) remote sensing. We begin by considering the transformations that must be applied to downwelling celestial noise in order to compute the eventual impact on the antenna temperature. Then, outside the context of any particular measurement system, we use approximate scattering models along with a model for the equilibrium wind wave spectrum to examine how the scattered signal at the surface might depend on the geophysical conditions and scattering geometry. It is found that, when the specular point lies far away from the galactic plane, where the incident celestial brightness is uniform, sea surface roughness has a negligible impact on the glitter. At such a point, variations in both the orientation of the incidence plane and the wind direction relative to the scattering azimuth have negligible impact. By contrast, when the specular point lies in the vicinity of a localized maximum of brightness, scattering by the roughened ocean surface may reduce the glitter by more than 30%, as compared to a perfectly flat surface, and the glitter amplitude may vary by up to 0.7 K with variations in wind direction and by up to 0.5 K with variations in incidence plane orientation. It is shown that accounting for the roughness impact on celestial noise contamination is of particular concern for the remote sensing of SSS.