A model-based evaluation of Marine Protected Areas: the example of eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias L.)
|Author(s)||Kraus Gerd, Pelletier Dominique2, Dubreuil Julien2, Moellmann Christian3, Hinrichsen Hans-Harald4, Bastardie Francois1, Vermard Youen2, Mahevas Stephanie2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Inst Aquat Resources, Dept Marine Fisheries, DK-2920 Charlottenlund, Denmark.
2 : Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer, F-44311 Nantes 03, France.
3 : Univ Hamburg, Inst Hydrobiol & Fishery Sci, D-22767 Hamburg, Germany.
4 : IFM GEOMAR, Leibniz Inst Marine Sci, D-24105 Kiel, Germany.
|Source||ICES Journal of Marine Science (1054-3139) (Oxford university press), 2009 , Vol. 66 , N. 1 , P. 109-121|
|WOS© Times Cited||22|
|Keyword(s)||Stock recovery, Model, Marine Protected Areas, Fishery management, Baltic cod|
|Abstract||The eastern Baltic cod stock collapsed as a consequence of climate-driven adverse hydrographic conditions and over fishing and has remained at historically low levels. Spatio-temporal fishing closures [Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)] have been implemented since 1995, to protect and restore the spawning stock. However, no signs of recovery have been observed yet, either suggesting that MPAs are an inappropriate management measure or pointing towards suboptimal closure design. We used the spatially explicit fishery simulation model ISIS-Fish to evaluate proposed and implemented fishery closures, combining an age-structured population module with a multifleet exploitation module and a management module in a single model environment. The model is parameterized based on (i) the large amount of biological knowledge available for cod and (ii) an analysis of existing spatially disaggregated fishery data. As the population dynamics of eastern Baltic cod depend strongly on the climate-driven hydrographic regime, we considered two production regimes of the stock. MPAs were only effective for stock recovery when they reduced overall fishing effort. The performance of MPAs needs to be evaluated relative to environmental regimes, especially for stocks facing strong environmental variability.|