Polyploid fish and shellfish: Production, biology and applications to aquaculture for performance improvement and genetic containment

Type Article
Date 2009-08
Language English
Author(s) Piferrer Francesc1, Beaumont Andy2, Falguiere Jean-Claude3, Flajshans Martin4, Haffray Pierrick5, Colombo Lorenzo6
Affiliation(s) 1 : CSIC, Inst Ciencias Mar, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain.
2 : Bangor Univ, Coll Nat Sci, Sch Ocean Sci, Menai Bridge LL59 5AB, Gwynedd, Wales.
3 : IFREMER, Stn Le Robert, F-97231 Pointe Fort, France.
4 : Univ S Bohemia Ceske Budejovice, Res Inst Fish Culture & Hydrobiol, Vodnany 38925, Czech Republic.
5 : SYSAAF, Rennes, France.
6 : Univ Padua, Dipartimento Biol, I-35121 Padua, Italy.
Source Aquaculture (0044-8486) (Elsevier), 2009-08 , Vol. 293 , N. 3-4 , P. 125-156
DOI 10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.036
WOS© Times Cited 386
Keyword(s) GMO, Transgenic containment, Genetic containment, Reproductive containment, Hybridisation, Sterility, Fish, Shellfish, Fish farming, Aquaculture, Tetraploidy, Triploidy, Polyploidy
Abstract Polyploids can be defined as organisms with one or more additional chromosome sets with respect to the number most frequently found in nature for a given species. Triploids, organisms with three sets of homologous chromosomes, are found spontaneously in both wild and cultured populations and can be easily induced in many commercially relevant species of fish and shellfish. The major consequence of triploidy is gonadal sterility, which is of advantage in the aquaculture of molluscs since it can result in superior growth. In fish, the induction of triploidy is mainly used to avoid problems associated with sexual maturation such as lower growth rates, increased incidence of diseases and deterioration of the organoleptic properties. Triploidy can also be used to increase the viability of some hybrids, and is regarded as a potential method for the genetic containment of farmed shellfish and fish. This review focuses on some current issues related to the application of induced polyploidy in aquaculture, namely: 1) the artificial induction of polyploidy and the effectiveness of current triploidisation techniques, including the applicability of tetraploidy to generate auto- and allotriploids; 2) the performance capacity of triploids with respect to diploids; 3) the degree and permanence of gonadal sterility in triploids; and 4) the prospects for the potential future generalised use of triploids to avoid the genetic impact of escapees of farmed fish and shellfish on wild populations. Finally, directions for future research on triploids and their implementation are discussed. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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