||Takai Ken1, Miyazaki Masayuki1, Hirayama Hisako1, Nakagawa Satoshi1, Querellou Joel2, Godfroy Anne2
||1 : Japan Agcy Marine Earth Sci & Technol, Sunground Animalcule Retrieval SUGAR Program, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 2370061, Japan.
2 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Microbiol Environm Extremes, UMR 6197, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
||Environmental Microbiology (1462-2912) (Wiley / Blackwell), 2009-08 , Vol. 11 , N. 8 , P. 1983-1997
|WOS© Times Cited
||sp. nov., ecological signifiance, hydrostatic pressure, subsurface biosphere, base composition, high temperature, membrane lipids, gen. nov., microorganisms, diversity
||P>Two novel, thermophilic piezophiles, capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth, are successfully cultivated and isolated from a black smoker chimney at the TAG field (Mid Atlantic Ridge: MAR) by using a piezophilic cultivation technique. Both strains (strains 106 and 108) represent dominant cultivated populations of the microbial communities in the chimney surface habitat. Strain 106 represents typically thin, long spiral cells under the piezophilic growth condition but short bent cells under the non-piezophilic condition. It is a strictly chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium using reduced sulfur compounds as the electron donors, and nitrate and O-2 as the electron acceptors. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain 106 would represent a novel genus of the previously uncultivated group (Symbiont Group I; a potentially novel family) within the Gammaproteobacteria, and 'Thioprofundum lithotrophica' gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. Strain 108 is a short, oval rod at any of the growth pressures. It is a facultative chemoautotroph, capable of both chemolithoautotrophic growth with H-2 and S oxidations and organotrophic growth with complex organics or organic acids using nitrate and O-2 as the electron acceptors. The chemolithoautotrophic growth is strictly piezophilic and under the organotrophic growth condition, it grows at conventional pressures (0.1 MPa). Strain 108 is phylogenetically distinctive from any of the previously described genera of the family Rhodobacteraceae within the Alphaproteobacteria, and 'Piezobacter thermophilus' gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The piezophilic cultivation technique can be a powerful tool to isolate and characterize the previously uncultivated phylotypes in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments.