The contribution of deep-sea macrohabitat heterogeneity to global nematode diversity
|Author(s)||Vanreusel Ann1, Fonseca Gustavo2, Danovaro Roberto3, Da Silva Maria Cristina4, Esteves Andre M.4, Ferrero Tim5, Gad Gunnar6, Galtsova Valentina, Gambi Cristina3, Genevois Veronica Da Fonseca4, Ingels Jeroen1, Ingole Baban7, Lampadariou Nikolaos8, Merckx Bea1, Miljutin Dmitry9, Miljutina Maria9, 10, Muthumbi Agnes11, Netto Sergio12, Portnova Daria10, Radziejewska Teresa13, Raes Maarten1, Tchesunov Alexei14, Vanaverbeke Jan1, Van Gaever Saskia1, Venekey Virag15, Bezerra Tania Nara1, Flint Hannah16, Copley John16, Pape Ellen1, Zeppilli Daniela3, Martinez Pedro Arbizu9, Galeron Joelle17|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Ghent Univ Krijgslaan, Marine Biol Res Grp, Ghent, Belgium.
2 : Alfred Wegener Inst Polar & Marine Res, Deep Sea Res Grp, Am Handelshafen Bremerha, Germany.
3 : Univ Politecn Marche, Dipartimento Sci Mare, Ancona, Italy.
4 : Univ Fed Pernambuco, Dept Zool, Lab Meiofauna Recife Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
5 : Nat Hist Museum, Dept Zool, London SW7 5BD, England.
6 : CVO Univ, AG Zoosystemat & Morphol, Oldenburg, Germany.
7 : Natl Inst Oceanog, Div Biol Oceanog, Panaji 403004, Goa, India.
8 : Hellen Ctr Marine Res, Iraklion, Crete, Greece.
9 : Deutsch Zentrum Marine Biodiversitatsforsch, Forschungsinst Senckenberg, Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
10 : Russian Acad Sci, PP Shirshov Oceanol Inst, Moscow, Russia.
11 : Univ Nairobi, Sch Biol Sci, Nairobi, Kenya.
12 : Univ Sul Santa Catarina, Lab Ciencias Marinhas, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
13 : Univ Szczecin, Inst Marine Sci, Palaeoceanol Unit, Szczecin, Poland.
14 : Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, Moscow, Russia.
15 : UFPA, IG, Belem, Para, Brazil.
16 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
17 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Environm Profond, Plouzane, France.
|Source||Marine Ecology-an Evolutionary Perspective (0173-9565) (Wiley-blackwell Publishing, Inc), 2010-03 , Vol. 31 , N. 1 , P. 6-20|
|WOS© Times Cited||168|
|Keyword(s)||Biodiversity, census of marine life, deep sea, habitat heterogeneity, meiofauna, nematode genera|
|Abstract||The great variety of geological and hydrological conditions in the deep sea generates many different habitats. Some are only recently explored, although their true extent and geographical coverage are still not fully established. Both continental margins and mid-oceanic seafloors are much more complex ecologically, geologically, chemically and hydrodynamically than originally thought. As a result, fundamental patterns of species distribution first observed and explained in the context of relatively monotonous slopes and abyssal plains must now be re-evaluated in the light of this newly recognized habitat heterogeneity. Based on a global database of nematode genus composition, collected as part of the Census of Marine Life, we show that macrohabitat heterogeneity contributes significantly to total deep-sea nematode diversity on a global scale. Different deep-sea settings harbour specific nematode assemblages. Some of them, like coral rubble zones or nodule areas, are very diverse habitats. Factors such as increased substrate complexity in the case of nodules and corals seem to facilitate the co-existence of a large number of genera with different modes of life, ranging from sediment dwelling to epifaunal. Furthermore, strong biochemical gradients in the case of vents or seeps are responsible for the success of particular genera, which are not prominent in more typical soft sediments. Many nematode deep-sea genera are cosmopolitan, inhabiting a variety of deep-sea habitats and oceans, whereas only 21% of all deep-sea genera recorded are restricted to a single habitat. In addition to habitat heterogeneity, regional differences are important in structuring nematode assemblages. For instance, seeps from different regions yield different genera that thrive on the sulphidic sediments. This study also shows that many areas and habitats remain highly under-sampled, affecting our ability to understand fully the contribution of habitat heterogeneity versus regional differences to global nematode diversity.|