Environmental Conditions Leading to Shellfish Contamination and Related Outbreaks

Type Article
Date 2010-09
Language English
Author(s) Maalouf Haifa1, Pommepuy Monique1, Le Guyader Soizick1
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, Microbiol Lab, F-44311 Nantes 03, France.
Source Food And Environmental Virology (1867-0334) (Springer), 2010-09 , Vol. 2 , N. 3 , P. 136-145
DOI 10.1007/s12560-010-9043-4
WOS© Times Cited 53
Keyword(s) Shellfish, Outbreaks, Norovirus, Environmental conditions
Abstract Human fecal wastes contain a large variety of viruses that can enter the environment through discharge of waste materials from infected individuals. Despite the high diversity of viruses that are introduced into the environment by human fecal pollution, only a few have been recognized to cause disease in association with consumption of contaminated shellfish. To explain bivalve mollusks contamination, several factors including human epidemiology, virus persistence through sewage treatment plant, and shellfish uptake may be suggested. Considering different outbreaks described in the literature, the most common route for transmission is accidental contamination after heavy rainfall, when extra loads cause an overflow, and release of untreated sewage into the aquatic environment. Outbreak analysis also demonstrates the impact on shellfish consumption of some viral strain transmission and thus their impact on molecular epidemiology, especially for norovirus. To limit shellfish contamination and thus to protect the consumer, the most desirable and effective option is to reduce the viral input.
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