Industrial scale detoxification of phycotoxin-contaminated shellfish : myth or reality ?

Type Proceedings paper
Date 2009
Language English
Author(s) Lassus Patrick1, Gowland Denis2, McKenzie Douglas3, Kelly Kelly4, Braaten Bjoern5, Marcaillou-Le Baut Claire1, Blanco Juan6
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER (Institut Français de Recherche et d'Exploitation durable de la MER), rue de l'Ile d'Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 3, France.
2 : North Bay Shellfish Ltd, Horries Deerness, Orkney, Scotland.
3 : Integrin Advanced Biosystems Ltd, Barcaldine Argyll, Scotland.
4 : SAMS Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban, Argyll, Scotland.
5 : NIVA, PO Box 173, Kjelsaas, Brekkeveien 19, 0411 Oslo, Norway
6 : CIMA, Pedras de Coron s/n apartado 13, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa (Pontevedra) Spain
Meeting Proceedings 6th International Conference molluscan Shellfish safety, Blenheim, NZ, March 2007
Source The Royal Society of New Zealand, Miscellaneous ser., 71, 289-297
Abstract As early as 1999, the EUROHAB initiative reported an urgent need for research on phycotoxin accumulation, detoxification and biotransformation rates in exploited shellfish species. It also strongly recommended a second objective of developing commercial systems for the cleansing of shellfish once contaminated with toxin. As a result, EU Framework Programs and regional programs funded a series of R & D projects aiming to consolidate our understanding of contamination/detoxification pathways, together with the development of industrial scale detoxification processes and mechanisms. These studies attempted to accelerate the depuration process, for DSP in blue mussels, PSP in Pacific oysters and Manila clams, and ASP in King Scallops. Bulk culture protocols were undertaken for either toxic (Alexandrium, Pseudo-nitzschia) or non-toxic (Skeletonema, Isochrysis) algae to balance the often random nature of toxic episodes, and to fulfil industry requirements for detoxification. Technical improvements were derived from these studies. They included a practical protocol for washing ASP from the edible parts of contaminated scallops, and the manufacture of an algal paste that could be used as detoxification material instead of live cells. Difficulties were experienced with a decrease in Alexandrium or Pseudo-nitzschia toxicity when grown in bulk cultures, and the wide individual variations of shellfish toxin content compromised some experiments. However, supplying non-toxin containing food to these bivalves was confirmed as one of the most efficient means of speeding up detoxification, although the time needed to reach the regulatory level varied according to toxin type and shellfish species.
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Lassus Patrick, Gowland Denis, McKenzie Douglas, Kelly Kelly, Braaten Bjoern, Marcaillou-Le Baut Claire, Blanco Juan (2009). Industrial scale detoxification of phycotoxin-contaminated shellfish : myth or reality ? The Royal Society of New Zealand, Miscellaneous ser., 71, 289-297.