Pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and pesticides in Mediterranean coastal waters: Results from a pilot survey using passive samplers
|Author(s)||Munaron Dominique1, Tapie Nathalie2, Budzinski Helene2, Andral Bruno3, Gonzalez Jean-Louis4|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, Lab Environm & Ressources Languedoc Roussillon, F-34203 Sete, France.
2 : Univ Bordeaux 1, Lab Physico & Toxicochim Environm, UMR CNRS 5255, F-33405 Talence, France.
3 : IFREMER, Lab Environm & Ressources Provence Alpes, F-83507 La Seyne Sur Mer, France.
4 : IFREMER, Dept Biogeochim & Ecotoxicol, F-83507 La Seyne Sur Mer, France.
|Source||Estuarine Coastal And Shelf Science (0272-7714) (Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd), 2012-12 , Vol. 114 , P. 82-92|
|WOS© Times Cited||71|
|Keyword(s)||POCIS, emerging contaminants, hydrophilic contaminants, marine monitoring, Mediterranean sea|
|Abstract||21 pharmaceuticals, 6 alkylphenols and 27 hydrophilic pesticides and biocides were investigated using polar organic contaminant integrative samplers (POCIS) during a large-scale study of contamination of French Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine and transitional water-bodies, defined under the EU Water Framework Directive were monitored. Our results show that the French Mediterranean coastal waters were contaminated with a large range of emerging contaminants, detected at low concentrations during the summer season. Caffeine, carbamazepine, theophilline and terbutaline were detected with a detection frequency higher than 83% in the coastal waters sampled, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were detected in all coastal waters sampled, and diuron, terbuthylazine, atrazine, irgarol and simazine were detected in more than 77% of samples. For pharmaceuticals, highest time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were measured for caffeine and carbamazepine (32 and 12 ng L-1, respectively). For alkylphenols, highest TWA concentrations were measured for 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate and 4-nonylphenol (41 and 33 ng L-1, respectively), and for herbicides and biocides, they were measured for diuron and irgarol (33 and 2.5 ng L-1, respectively). Except for Diana lagoon, lagoons and semi-enclosed bays were the most contaminated areas for herbicides and pharmaceuticals, whilst, for alkylphenols, levels of contamination were similar in lagoons and coastal waters. This study demonstrates the relevance and utility of POCIS as quantitative tool for measuring low concentrations of emerging contaminants in marine waters.|