Detection of early effects of a single herbicide (diuron) and a mix of herbicides and pharmaceuticals (diuron, isoproturon, ibuprofen) on immunological parameters of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) spat
|Author(s)||Luna-Acosta Andrea1, 3, Renault Tristan2, 3, Thomas-Guyon Helene1, 3, Faury Nicole2, 3, Saulnier Denis2, 3, Budzinski Helene4, Le Menach K.4, Pardon P.4, Fruitier-Arnaudin I.1, 3, Bustamante Paco1, 3|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ La Rochelle, CNRS, Littoral Environm & Soc LIENSs, UMR 7266, F-17042 La Rochelle 01, France.
2 : IFREMER, LGP, F-17390 Ronce Les Bains, La Tremblade, France.
3 : Federat Rech Environm Dev Durable, FR 3097, F-17042 La Rochelle 01, France.
4 : Univ Bordeaux 1, CNRS, Lab Physicotoxicochim Environm LPTC, EPOC,UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence, France.
|Source||Chemosphere (0045-6535) (Pergamon-elsevier Science Ltd), 2012-06 , Vol. 87 , N. 11 , P. 1335-1340|
|WOS© Times Cited||39|
|Keyword(s)||Bivalve, Pollution, Gene expression, Laccase, Superoxide dismutase, Phagocytosis|
|Abstract||In the context of massive summer mortality events of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the aim of this study was to investigate the early effects on genes, enzymes and haemocyte parameters implicated in immune defence mechanisms in C. gigas oysters exposed to a potentially hostile environment, i.e. to an herbicide alone or within a mixture. Following 2 h of exposure to the herbicide diuron at 1 mu g L-1 the repression of different genes implicated in immune defence mechanisms in the haemocytes and the inhibition of enzyme activities, such as laccase-type phenoloxidase (PO) in the plasma, were observed. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the plasma was also observed after 6 and 24 h of exposure. In the mixture with the herbicides diuron and isoproturon, and the pharmaceutical ibuprofen, catecholase-type PO activity in the plasma and the percentage of phagocytosis in the haemocytes were reduced after 6 h of exposure. Our results showed that early effects on molecular, biochemical and cellular parameters can be detected in the presence of diuron alone or within a mixture, giving an insight of its potential effect in situations that can be found in natural environments, i.e. relatively high concentrations for short periods of time. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.|