Effect of environmental and nutritional factors on growth and azaspiracid production of the dinoflagellate Azadinium spinosum
|Author(s)||Jauffrais Thierry1, 2, Sechet Veronique1, Herrenknecht Christine2, Truquet Philippe1, Savar Veronique1, Tillmann Urban3, Hess Philipp1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, Lab EMP PHYC, F-44311 Nantes, France.
2 : Univ Nantes, LUNAM, MMS EA2160, F-44035 Nantes, France.
3 : Alfred Wegener Inst, D-27570 Bremerhaven, Germany.
|Source||Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2013-07 , Vol. 27 , P. 138-148|
|WOS© Times Cited||13|
|Keyword(s)||AZA, Chemostat, Dinophyceae, Nutrients, N/P ratio, Photobioreactor|
|Abstract||Azadinium spinosum, a small dinoflagellate isolated from the North Sea, is a producer of azaspiracids (AZAs), a group of biotoxins associated with human illness following ingestion of contaminated shellfish. Using batch and continuous cultures of A. spinosum, the present study investigated the effects of different environmental and nutritional factors (salinity, temperature, photon flux density, aeration, culture media, nitrogen sources, phosphate source, and N/P ratios) on growth, maximum cell concentration, and AZA cell quota.Azadinium spinosum grew in a wide range of conditions; from 10 ̊C to 26 ̊C and salinities from 30 to 40, under irradiances ranging from 50 μmol m−2 s−1 to 250 μmol m−2 s−1, with or without aeration. Growth and maximum cell concentration were highest at a salinity of 35, at temperatures between 18 ̊C and 22 ̊C, and with aeration. Concerning AZA cell quota, the most significant effect was observed at low temperature; the AZA cell quota was more than 20 times higher at 10 ̊C (220 fg cell−1) than at temperatures between 18 ̊C and 26 ̊C. A. spinosum grew on all media tested with only slight differences in growth rate and AZA cell quota. In continuous culture, lowering the concentration of nutrients (0.5 strength of a modified K-medium) in the inflow improved AZA cell quota whereas higher concentration (doubling the normal strength of K-medium) improved maximal cell concentration. A. spinosum grew on different sources of nitrogen tested (nitrate, urea, ammonium) with almost no effect on toxin cell quota and growth, except that adding ammonium caused a decrease in growth.These first experiments on Azadinium spinosum increased our knowledge on factors affecting its growth and toxin production; furthermore, these results allowed and improved particularly A. spinosum production in pilot scale photobioreactors for AZA isolation.|