Seasonal Pattern of the Biogeochemical Properties of Mangrove Sediments Receiving Shrimp Farm Effluents (New Caledonia)

Type Article
Date 2014-07-03
Language English
Author(s) Marchand Cyril1, Molnar N.1, 2, Deborde Jonathan1, Della Patrona Luc3, Meziane Tarik2
Affiliation(s) 1 : IRD, French Research Organization, New Caledonia, France
2 : UMR Biology of Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems, National Museum Natural History, CP 53, 61 Rue Buffon, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France
3 : Department of Lagons, Ecosystems and Sustainable Aquaculture (LEAD/NC), Ifremer, 101, Promenade Roger Laroque, Centre IRD, BP 2059 – 98846 Nouméa Cedex, New Caledonia, France
Source Journal of Aquaculture Research & Development (21559546) (OMICS Publishing Group), 2014-07-03 , Vol. 5 , N. 5 , P. 1-13
DOI 10.4172/2155-9546.1000262
Keyword(s) Shrimp farming, Effluents, Mangrove, Sediment biogeochemistry, New Caledonia
Abstract Coastal tropical shrimp farming may impact the adjacent ecosystems through the release of large quantities of effluents rich in nutrients. In New Caledonia, mangroves are considered as a natural biofilter to reduce impacts on the surrounding World Heritage listed lagoon. Our main objective was to understand the influence of effluent discharge on the biogeochemistry of mangrove sediments. A monitoring of the physico-chemical parameters of mangrove sediments was carried out during a whole year, including active and non active periods of the farm. The parameters studied were: i) benthic primary production (Chl-a concentrations), ii) physico-chemical parameters of sediments (redox potential, pH, salinity, TOC, TN, TS, δ13C and δ15N), iii) concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, iron and phosphorus. A mangrove developing in the same physiographic conditions, presenting the same zonation, and free of anthropogenic input was used as reference. The concentration of benthic Chl-a measured at sediment surface in the effluent receiving mangrove was twice to three times that measured in the control zone whatever the season. We thus suggest that nutrients inputs significantly increased the phytobenthic production in the effluent receiving mangrove during the whole year, even after the cessation of discharges and because of natural seasonal dynamic of phytobenthos. Although the flow of surface OM was increased, the OM content at depth was not higher than in the control mangrove. However, the contribution of mangrove detritus to the sedimentary organic pool was higher probably as a result of higher density and much greater individual size of the mangrove trees. Unlike the control mangrove sediment, the effluent receiving mangrove sediment was not stratified, redox potential values were high and presence of Fe3+ was detected down to 50 cm depth, probably as a result of a larger root system, allowing a better sediment oxygenation and accentuated OM decomposition processes, and thus limiting ecosystem saturation.
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