Induction of apoptosis by UV in the flat oyster, Ostrea edulis

Type Article
Date 2015-10
Language English
Author(s) Gervais Ophelie1, Renault Tristan1, Arzul IsabelleORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : IFREMER, LGPMM, Unite Sante Genet & Microbiol Mollusques SG2M, F-17390 La Tremblade, France.
Source Fish & Shellfish Immunology (1050-4648) (Academic Press Ltd- Elsevier Science Ltd), 2015-10 , Vol. 46 , N. 2 , P. 232-242
DOI 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.05.046
WOS© Times Cited 21
Keyword(s) Apoptosis, Hemocyte(s), Oyster, Ostrea edulis, UV, Flow cytometry, Microscopy
Abstract Apoptosis is a fundamental feature in the development of many organisms and tissue systems. It is also a mechanism of host defense against environmental stress factors or pathogens by contributing to the elimination of infected cells. Hemocytes play a key role in defense mechanisms in invertebrates and previous studies have shown that physical or chemical stress can increase apoptosis in hemocytes in mollusks. However this phenomenon has rarely been investigated in bivalves especially in the flat oyster Ostrea edulis. The apoptotic response of hemocytes from flat oysters, O. edulis, was investigated after exposure to UV and dexamethasone, two agents known to induce apoptosis in vertebrates. Flow cytometry and microscopy were combined to demonstrate that apoptosis occurs in flat oyster hemocytes. Investigated parameters like intracytoplasmic calcium activity, mitochondrial membrane potential and phosphatidyl-serine externalization were significantly modulated in cells exposed to UV whereas dexamethasone only induced an increase of DNA fragmentation. Morphological changes were also observed on UV-treated cells using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Our results confirm the apoptotic effect of UV on hemocytes of O. edulis and suggest that apoptosis is an important mechanism developed by the flat oyster against stress factors.
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