Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array

Type Article
Date 2016-02
Language English
Author(s) Riser Stephen C.1, Freeland Howard J.2, Roemmich Dean3, Wijffels Susan4, Troisi Ariel5, Belbeoch Mathieu6, Gilbert Denis7, Xu Jianping8, Pouliquen SylvieORCID9, Thresher Ann4, Le Traon Pierre-YvesORCID10, 11, Maze GuillaumeORCID9, Klein Birgit12, Ravichandran M.13, Grant Fiona14, Poulain Pierre-Marie15, Suga Toshio16, 17, Lim Byunghwan18, Sterl Andreas19, Sutton Philip20, Mork Kjell-Arne21, Joaquin Velez-Belch Pedro22, Ansorge Isabelle23, King Brian24, Turton Jon25, Baringer Molly26, Jayne Steven R.27
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Washington, Dept Oceanog, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
2 : Inst Ocean Sci, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, North Saanich, BC V8L 4B2, Canada.
3 : Scripps Inst Oceanog, 9500 Gilman Dr,0230, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
4 : CSIRO, Ctr Australian Weather & Climate Res, Hobart, Tas 7004, Australia.
5 : Serv Hidrog Naval, A Montes Oca 2124,Buenos Aires C1270 ABV, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
6 : Joint Commiss Oceanog & Marine Meteorol Operat JC, BP 70, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
7 : Inst Maurice Lamontagne, Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Mont Joli, PQ G5H 3Z4, Canada.
8 : SOA, Inst Oceanog 2, 36 Baochubei Rd, Hangzhou 310012, Zhejiang, Peoples R China.
9 : IFREMER, BP 70, Plouzane, France.
10 : IFREMER, 8-10 Rue Hermes Parc Technol Canal, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
11 : Mercator Ocean, 8-10 Rue Hermes Parc Technol Canal, F-31520 Ramonville St Agne, France.
12 : Bundesamt Seeschifffahrt & Hydrog, Bernhard Nocht Str 78, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany.
13 : Indian Natl Ctr Ocean Informat Serv, Hyderabad 500090, Andhra Pradesh, India.
14 : Inst Marine, Int Programmes, Wilton Pk House,Wilton Pl, Dublin 2, Ireland.
15 : OGS, 42-C Sgonico, I-20359 Trieste, Italy.
16 : JAMSTEC, Aoba Ku, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-3, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan.
17 : Tohoku Univ, Aoba Ku, Aramaki Aza Aoba 6-3, Sendai, Miyagi 9808578, Japan.
18 : Natl Inst Meteorol Sci KMA, 33 Seohobuk Ro, Seogwipo Si 63568, Jeju Do, South Korea.
19 : KNMI, POB 201, NL-3730 AE De Bilt, Netherlands.
20 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Reseach, 301 Evans Bay Parade,Greta Point, Wellington 6021, New Zealand.
21 : Marine Res Inst, POB 1870 Nordes, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.
22 : Inst Espanol Oceanog, Via Espaldon,Darsena Pesquera,Parcela 8, Santa Cruz de Tenerife 38180, Spain.
23 : Univ Cape Town, Inst Marine Res, Dept Oceanog, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
24 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton S014 3ZH, Hants, England.
25 : Met Off, FitzRoy Rd, Exeter EX1 3PB, Devon, England.
26 : NOAA, Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, 4301 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
27 : Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA 02543 USA.
Source Nature Climate Change (1758-678X) (Nature Publishing Group), 2016-02 , Vol. 6 , N. 2 , P. 145-153
DOI 10.1038/NCLIMATE2872
WOS© Times Cited 328
Abstract More than 90% of the heat energy accumulation in the climate system between 1971 and the present has been in the ocean. Thus, the ocean plays a crucial role in determining the climate of the planet. Observing the oceans is problematic even under the most favourable of conditions. Historically, shipboard ocean sampling has left vast expanses, particularly in the Southern Ocean, unobserved for long periods of time. Within the past 15 years, with the advent of the global Argo array of pro ling oats, it has become possible to sample the upper 2,000 m of the ocean globally and uniformly in space and time. The primary goal of Argo is to create a systematic global network of pro ling oats that can be integrated with other elements of the Global Ocean Observing System. The network provides freely available temperature and salinity data from the upper 2,000 m of the ocean with global coverage. The data are available within 24 hours of collection for use in a broad range of applications that focus on examining climate-relevant variability on seasonal to decadal timescales, multidecadal climate change, improved initialization of coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models and constraining ocean analysis and forecasting systems.
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Riser Stephen C., Freeland Howard J., Roemmich Dean, Wijffels Susan, Troisi Ariel, Belbeoch Mathieu, Gilbert Denis, Xu Jianping, Pouliquen Sylvie, Thresher Ann, Le Traon Pierre-Yves, Maze Guillaume, Klein Birgit, Ravichandran M., Grant Fiona, Poulain Pierre-Marie, Suga Toshio, Lim Byunghwan, Sterl Andreas, Sutton Philip, Mork Kjell-Arne, Joaquin Velez-Belch Pedro, Ansorge Isabelle, King Brian, Turton Jon, Baringer Molly, Jayne Steven R. (2016). Fifteen years of ocean observations with the global Argo array. Nature Climate Change, 6(2), 145-153. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :