Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment

Type Article
Date 2016-01
Language English
Author(s) Booij Kees1, Robinson Craig D.2, Burgess Robert M.3, Mayer Philipp4, Roberts Cindy A.5, Ahrens Lutz6, Allan Ian J.7, Brant Jan8, Jones Lisa9, Kraus Uta R.10, Larsen Martin M.11, Lepom Peter12, Petersen Joerdis13, Proefrock Daniel13, Roose Patrick14, Schaefer Sabine15, Smedes Foppe16, 17, Tixier Celine18, Vorkamp Katrin19, Whitehouse Paul20
Affiliation(s) 1 : NIOZ Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res, NL-1790 AB Texel, Netherlands.
2 : Marine Lab, Marine Scotland Sci, Aberdeen AB30 1AD, Scotland.
3 : US EPA, Off Res & Dev, Natl Hlth & Environm Effects Res Lab, Atlantic Ecol Div, Narragansett, RI 02882 USA.
4 : Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Environm Engn, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
5 : US EPA, Off Res & Dev, Washington, DC 20460 USA.
6 : Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
7 : Norwegian Inst Water Res NIVA, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway.
8 : Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England.
9 : Dublin City Univ, Dublin 9, Ireland.
10 : Fed Maritime & Hydrog Agcy, D-22589 Hamburg, Germany.
11 : Aarhus Univ, Dept Biosci, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
12 : Fed Environm Agcy, Lab Water Anal, D-14193 Berlin, Germany.
13 : Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Inst Coastal Res, Dept Marine Bioanalyt Chem, D-21502 Geesthacht, Germany.
14 : Royal Belgian Inst Nat Sci, Operat Directorate Nat Environm, B-1200 Brussels, Belgium.
15 : Fed Inst Hydrol, D-56068 Koblenz, Germany.
16 : Masaryk Univ, RECETOX, Brno 62500, Czech Republic.
17 : Deltares, NL-3508 AL Utrecht, Netherlands.
18 : IFREMER, Unit Biogeochem & Ecotoxicol, Lab Biogeochem Organ Contaminants, F-44311 Nantes 3, France.
19 : Aarhus Univ, Dept Environm Sci, DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark.
20 : Environm Agcy, Evidence Directorate, Howbery Pk OX10 8BD, England.
Source Environmental Science & Technology (0013-936X) (Amer Chemical Soc), 2016-01 , Vol. 50 , N. 1 , P. 3-17
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b04050
WOS© Times Cited 113
Abstract We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.
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Booij Kees, Robinson Craig D., Burgess Robert M., Mayer Philipp, Roberts Cindy A., Ahrens Lutz, Allan Ian J., Brant Jan, Jones Lisa, Kraus Uta R., Larsen Martin M., Lepom Peter, Petersen Joerdis, Proefrock Daniel, Roose Patrick, Schaefer Sabine, Smedes Foppe, Tixier Celine, Vorkamp Katrin, Whitehouse Paul (2016). Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(1), 3-17. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :