An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part II: Liquid freshwater
|Author(s)||Wang Qiang1, Ilicak Mehmet2, Gerdes Ruediger1, Drange Helge3, Aksenov Yevgeny4, Bailey David A.5, Bentsen Mats2, Biastoch Arne6, Bozec Alexandra7, Boening Claus6, Cassou Christophe8, Chassignet Eric7, Coward Andrew C.4, Curry Beth9, Danabasoglu Gokhan5, Danilov Sergey1, Fernandez Elodie7, Fogli Pier Giuseppe10, Fujii Yosuke11, Griffies Stephen M.12, Iovino Doroteaciro10, Jahn Alexandra5, 13, 14, Jung Thomas1, 15, Large William G.5, Lee Craig9, Lique Camille16, 17, Lu Jianhua, Masina Simona10, 21, Nurser A. J. George4, Rabe Benjamin1, Roth Christina6, Salas Y Melia David18, Samuels Bonita L.12, Spence Paul19, 20, Tsujino Hiroyuki11, Valcke Sophie, Voldoire Aurore18, Wang Xuezhu1, Yeager Steve G.5|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res AWI, Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
2 : Uni Res Ltd, Bergen, Norway.
3 : Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
4 : NOC, Southampton SO14 3ZH, Hants, England.
5 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.
6 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Ctr Ocean Res, Kiel, Germany.
7 : Florida State Univ, COAPS, Tallahassee, FL 32306 USA.
8 : Ctr Europeen Rech & Format Avancee Calcul Sci, Unite Rech Associee 1875, Ctr Natl Rech Sci, URA1875,CERFACS, Toulouse, France.
9 : Univ Washington, Appl Phys Lab, Seattle, WA 98105 USA.
10 : Ctr Euromediterraneo Cambiamenti Climat CMCC, Bologna, Italy.
11 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, MRI, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
12 : NOAA, GFDL, Princeton, NJ USA.
13 : Univ Colorado, Dept Atmospher & Ocean Sci, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
14 : Univ Colorado, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO 80309 USA.
15 : Univ Bremen, Inst Environm Phys, D-28359 Bremen, Germany.
16 : Univ Oxford, Dept Earth Sci, Oxford OX1 3PR, England.
17 : IFREMER, Ctr Brest, Lab Phys Oceans, Plouzane, France.
18 : CNRM, Toulouse, France.
19 : Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
20 : Univ New S Wales, ARC Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
21 : INGV, Bologna, Italy.
|Source||Ocean Modelling (1463-5003) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2016-03 , Vol. 99 , P. 86-109|
|WOS© Times Cited||45|
|Note||Virtual Special Issue CORE-II|
|Keyword(s)||Arctic Ocean, Freshwater, Sea ice, CORE II atmospheric forcing|
|Abstract||The Arctic Ocean simulated in 14 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II) is analyzed in this study. The focus is on the Arctic liquid freshwater (FW) sources and freshwater content (FWC). The models agree on the interannual variability of liquid FW transport at the gateways where the ocean volume transport determines the FW transport variability. The variation of liquid FWC is induced by both the surface FW flux (associated with sea ice production) and lateral liquid FW transport, which are in phase when averaged on decadal time scales. The liquid FWC shows an increase starting from the mid-1990s, caused by the reduction of both sea ice formation and liquid FW export, with the former being more significant in most of the models. The mean state of the FW budget is less consistently simulated than the temporal variability. The model ensemble means of liquid FW transport through the Arctic gateways compare well with observations. On average, the models have too high mean FWC, weaker upward trends of FWC in the recent decade than the observation, and low consistency in the temporal variation of FWC spatial distribution, which needs to be further explored for the purpose of model development.|