Rising the Persian Gulf Black-Lip Pearl Oyster to the Species Level: Fragmented Habitat and Chaotic Genetic Patchiness in Pinctada persica
|Author(s)||Ranjbar Mohammad Sharif1, Zolgharnien Hossein2, Yavari Vahid3, Archangi Bita2, Salari Mohammad Ali2, Arnaud-Haond Sophie4, Cunha Regina L.5|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Hormozgan Univ, Fac Sci, Dept Marine Biol, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
2 : Khoramshahr Univ Marine Sci & Technol, Fac Marine Sci, Dept Marine Biol, Khorramshahr, Iran.
3 : Khoramshahr Univ Marine Sci & Technol, Fac Marine Resources, Dept Fishery, Khorramshahr, Iran.
4 : IFREMER UMR MARBEC Marine Biodivers Exploitat & C, Blvd Jean Monnet,BP 171, F-34203 Sete, France.
5 : Univ Algarve, Ctr Marine Sci CCMAR, Campus Gambelas, P-8005139 Faro, Portugal.
|Source||Evolutionary Biology (0071-3260) (Springer), 2016-03 , Vol. 43 , N. 1 , P. 131-143|
|WOS© Times Cited||5|
|Keyword(s)||Black-lip pearl oysters, Pinctada persica, Species delimitation, Persian Gulf, Fragmented habitat|
|Abstract||Marine organisms with long pelagic larval stages are expected to exhibit low genetic differentiation due to their potential to disperse over large distances. Growing body of evidence, however, suggests that marine populations can differentiate over small spatial scales. Here we focused on black-lip pearl oysters from the Persian Gulf that are thought to belong to the Pinctada margaritifera complex given their morphological affinities. This species complex includes seven lineages that show a wide distribution ranging from the Persian Gulf (Pinctada margaritifera persica) and Indian Ocean (P. m. zanzibarensis) to the French Polynesia (P. m. cumingii) and Hawai'i (P. m. galtsoffi). Despite the long pelagic larval phase of P. m. persica, this lineage is absent from continental locations and can only be found on a few islands of the Persian Gulf. Mitochondrial COI-based analyses indicated that P. m. persica belongs to a clearly divergent ESU and groups with specimens from Mauritius (P. m. zanzibarensis). Microsatellite data, used here to assess the spatial scale of realized dispersal of Persian Gulf black-lip pearl oysters, revealed significant genetic structure among islands distant of only a few dozen kilometres. The scantiness of suitable habitats most likely restricted the distribution of this lineage originating the observed chaotic genetic patchiness. The hatchery-based enhancement performed in one of the sampled islands may also have affected population genetic structure. The long-term accumulation of genetic differences likely resulted from the allopatric divergence between P. m. persica and the neighbouring Indian Ocean black-lip pearl oysters.|