Toxin and Growth Responses of the Neurotoxic Dinoflagellate Vulcanodinium rugosum to Varying Temperature and Salinity
|Author(s)||Abadie Eric1, Muguet Alexia1, Berteaux Tom1, Chomerat Nicolas2, Hess Philipp3, Roque D'Orbcastel Emmanuelle1, Masseret Estelle4, Laabir Mohamed4|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER, Ctr Marine Biodivers Exploitat & Conservat MARBEC, Lab Environm Ressources Languedoc Roussillon, CS30171, F-34200 Sete 03, France.
2 : IFREMER, Lab Environm Ressources Bretagne Occidentale, Pl Croix, F-29900 Concarneau, France.
3 : IFREMER, Lab Phycotoxines DYNECO PHYC, Rue Ile Yeu,BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes 3, France.
4 : Univ Montpellier, Inst Dev Res, Ctr Marine Biodivers Exploitat & Conservat MARBEC, Ifremer,CNRS, Pl E Bataillon,CC93, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France.
|Source||Toxins (2072-6651) (Mdpi Ag), 2016-05 , Vol. 8 , N. 5 , P. 136 (1-18)|
|WOS© Times Cited||14|
|Note||This article belongs to the collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins|
|Keyword(s)||Vulcanodinium rugosum, Mediterranean Ingril Lagoon, toxin production, growth conditions, temperature, salinity|
|Abstract||Vulcanodinium rugosum, a recently described species, produces pinnatoxins. The IFR-VRU-01 strain, isolated from a French Mediterranean lagoon in 2010 and identified as the causative dinoflagellate contaminating mussels in the Ingril Lagoon (French Mediterranean) with pinnatoxin-G, was grown in an enriched natural seawater medium. We tested the effect of temperature and salinity on growth, pinnatoxin-G production and chlorophyll a levels of this dinoflagellate. These factors were tested in combinations of five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) and five salinities (20, 25, 30, 35 and 40) at an irradiance of 100 µmol photon m−2 s−1. V. rugosum can grow at temperatures and salinities ranging from 20 °C to 30 °C and 20 to 40, respectively. The optimal combination for growth (0.39 ± 0.11 d−1) was a temperature of 25 °C and a salinity of 40. Results suggest that V. rugosum is euryhaline and thermophile which could explain why this dinoflagellate develops in situ only from June to September. V. rugosum growth rate and pinnatoxin-G production were highest at temperatures ranging between 25 and 30 °C. This suggests that the dinoflagellate may give rise to extensive blooms in the coming decades caused by the climate change-related increases in temperature expected in the Mediterranean coasts.|