|Author(s)||Dehaut Alexandre1, Cassone Anne-Laure2, Frere Laura2, Hermabessiere Ludovic1, Himber Charlotte1, Rinnert Emmanuel3, Riviere Gilles4, Lambert Christophe2, Soudant Philippe2, Huvet Arnaud5, Duflos Guillaume1, Paul-Pont Ika2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : ANSES, Lab Securite Aliments, Blvd Bassin Napoleon, F-62200 Boulogne Sur Mer, France.
2 : UMR6539 UBO CNRS IRD IFREMER, Inst Univ Europeen Mer, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, Technopole Brest Iroise,Rue Dumont dUrville, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
3 : IFREMER, LDCM, Ctr Bretagne, CS 10070, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
4 : ANSES, Direct Evaluat Risques, 14 Rue Pierre & Marie Curie, F-94701 Maisons Alfort, France.
5 : UMR 6539 UBO CNRS IRD IFREMER, IFREMER, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
|Source||Environmental Pollution (0269-7491) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2016-08 , Vol. 215 , P. 223-233|
|WOS© Times Cited||167|
|Keyword(s)||Microplastics, Digestion, Method, Seafood products, Tissue, Plastic integrity|
|Abstract||Pollution of the oceans by microplastics (<5 mm) represents a major environmental problem. To date, a limited number of studies have investigated the level of contamination of marine organisms collected in situ. For extraction and characterization of microplastics in biological samples, the crucial step is the identification of solvent(s) or chemical(s) that efficiently dissolve organic matter without degrading plastic polymers for their identification in a time and cost effective way. Most published papers, as well as OSPAR recommendations for the development of a common monitoring protocol for plastic particles in fish and shellfish at the European level, use protocols containing nitric acid to digest the biological tissues, despite reports of polyamide degradation with this chemical. In the present study, six existing approaches were tested and their effects were compared on up to 15 different plastic polymers, as well as their efficiency in digesting biological matrices. Plastic integrity was evaluated through microscopic inspection, weighing, pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, and Raman spectrometry before and after digestion. Tissues from mussels, crabs and fish were digested before being filtered on glass fibre filters. Digestion efficiency was evaluated through microscopical inspection of the filters and determination of the relative removal of organic matter content after digestion. Five out of the six tested protocols led to significant degradation of plastic particles and/or insufficient tissue digestion. The protocol using a KOH 10% solution and incubation at 60 °C during a 24 h period led to an efficient digestion of biological tissues with no significant degradation on all tested polymers, except for cellulose acetate. This protocol appeared to be the best compromise for extraction and later identification of microplastics in biological samples and should be implemented in further monitoring studies to ensure relevance and comparison of environmental and seafood product quality studies.|
Dehaut Alexandre, Cassone Anne-Laure, Frere Laura, Hermabessiere Ludovic, Himber Charlotte, Rinnert Emmanuel, Riviere Gilles, Lambert Christophe, Soudant Philippe, Huvet Arnaud, Duflos Guillaume, Paul-Pont Ika (2016). Microplastics in seafood: Benchmark protocol for their extraction and characterization. Environmental Pollution, 215, 223-233. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.018 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00335/44582/