Exposure of marine mussels Mytilus spp. to polystyrene microplastics: Toxicity and influence on fluoranthene bioaccumulation
|Author(s)||Paul-Pont Ika1, Lacroix Camille1, 2, Gonzalez Fernandez Carmen3, Hegaret Helene1, Lambert Christophe1, Le Goic Nelly1, Frere Laura1, Cassone Anne-Laure1, Sussarellu Rossana4, Fabioux Caroline1, Guyomarch Julien2, Albentosa Marina3, Huvet Arnaud5, Soudant Philippe1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : IFREMER Inst Univ Europeen Mer, Technopole Brest Iroise, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, CNRS,UBO,IRD,UMR 6539, Rue Dumont dUrville, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
2 : CEDRE, 715 Rue Alain Colas, F-29218 Brest 2, France.
3 : IEO, Ctr Oceanog Murcia, Varadero 1, E-30740 Murcia, Spain.
4 : IFREMER, Lab Ecotoxicol, Nantes, France.
5 : IFREMER, Lab Sci Environm Marin LEMAR, UMR 6539, UBO,CNRS,IRD,Ctr Bretagne, CS 10070, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
|Source||Environmental Pollution (0269-7491) (Elsevier Sci Ltd), 2016-09 , Vol. 216 , P. 724-737|
|WOS© Times Cited||157|
|Keyword(s)||Microplastics, Fluoranthene, Mussel, Depuration, Oxidative system|
|Abstract||The effects of polystyrene microbeads (micro-PS; mix of 2 and 6 μm; final concentration: 32 μg L−1) alone or in combination with fluoranthene (30 μg L−1) on marine mussels Mytilus spp. were investigated after 7 days of exposure and 7 days of depuration under controlled laboratory conditions. Overall, fluoranthene was mostly associated to algae Chaetoceros muelleri (partition coefficient Log Kp = 4.8) used as a food source for mussels during the experiment. When micro-PS were added in the system, a fraction of FLU transferred from the algae to the microbeads as suggested by the higher partition coefficient of micro-PS (Log Kp = 6.6), which confirmed a high affinity of fluoranthene for polystyrene microparticles. However, this did not lead to a modification of fluoranthene bioaccumulation in exposed individuals, suggesting that micro-PS had a minor role in transferring fluoranthene to mussels tissues in comparison with waterborne and foodborne exposures. After depuration, a higher fluoranthene concentration was detected in mussels exposed to micro-PS and fluoranthene, as compared to mussels exposed to fluoranthene alone. This may be related to direct effect of micro-PS on detoxification mechanisms, as suggested by a down regulation of a P-glycoprotein involved in pollutant excretion, but other factors such as an impairment of the filtration activity or presence of remaining beads in the gut cannot be excluded. Micro-PS alone led to an increase in hemocyte mortality and triggered substantial modulation of cellular oxidative balance: increase in reactive oxygen species production in hemocytes and enhancement of anti-oxidant and glutathione-related enzymes in mussel tissues. Highest histopathological damages and levels of anti-oxidant markers were observed in mussels exposed to micro-PS together with fluoranthene. Overall these results suggest that under the experimental conditions of our study micro-PS led to direct toxic effects at tissue, cellular and molecular levels, and modulated fluoranthene kinetics and toxicity in marine mussels.|