Distinct immune responses of juvenile and adult oysters (Crassostrea gigas) to viral and bacterial infections
|Author(s)||Green Timothy J.1, 2, Vergnes Agnes1, Montagnani Caroline1, de Lorgeril Julien1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, IHPE,UMR 5244,Univ Perpignan Via Domitia, F-34095 Montpellier, France.
2 : Macquarie Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Sydney, NSW 2109, Australia.
|Source||Veterinary Research (0928-4249) (Biomed Central Ltd), 2016-07 , Vol. 47 , N. 72 , P. 1-11|
|WOS© Times Cited||23|
|Abstract||Since 2008, massive mortality events of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) have been reported worldwide and these disease events are often associated with Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 (OsHV-1). Epidemiological field studies have also reported oyster age and other pathogens of the Vibrio genus are contributing factors to this syndrome. We undertook a controlled laboratory experiment to simultaneously investigate survival and immunological response of juvenile and adult C. gigas at different time-points post-infection with OsHV-1, Vibrio tasmaniensis LGP32 and V. aestuarianus. Our data corroborates epidemiological studies that juveniles are more susceptible to OsHV-1, whereas adults are more susceptible to Vibrio. We measured the expression of 102 immune-genes by high-throughput RT-qPCR, which revealed oysters have different transcriptional responses to OsHV-1 and Vibrio. The transcriptional response in the early stages of OsHV-1 infection involved genes related to apoptosis and the interferon-pathway. Transcriptional response to Vibrio infection involved antimicrobial peptides, heat shock proteins and galectins. Interestingly, oysters in the later stages of OsHV-1 infection had a transcriptional response that resembled an antibacterial response, which is suggestive of the oyster's microbiome causing secondary infections (dysbiosis-driven pathology). This study provides molecular evidence that oysters can mount distinct immune response to viral and bacterial pathogens and these responses differ depending on the age of the host.|