Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in aquaculture: a review

Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN), is a major devastating threat for aquatic animals. Betanodaviruses have been isolated in at least 70 aquatic animal species in marine and in freshwater environments throughout the world, with the notable exception of South America. In this review, the main features of betanodavirus, including its diversity, its distribution and its transmission modes in fish, are firstly presented. Then, the existing diagnosis and detection methods, as well as the different control procedures of this disease, are reviewed. Finally, the potential of selective breeding, including both conventional and genomic selection, as an opportunity to obtain resistant commercial populations, is examined.


betanodavirus, disease resistance, genetics, nervous necrosis virus, selective breeding

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Doan Q. K., Vandeputte Marc, Chatain Beatrice, Morin T, Allal Francois (2017). Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in aquaculture: a review. Journal Of Fish Diseases. 40 (5). 717-742.,

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