Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network
|Author(s)||Sprovieri Francesca1, Pirrone Nicola2, Bencardino Mariantonia1, D'Amore Francesco1, Carbone Francesco1, Cinnirella Sergio1, Mannarino Valentino1, Landis Matthew3, Ebinghaus Ralf4, Weigelt Andreas4, Brunke Ernst-Gunther5, Labuschagne Casper5, Martin Lynwill5, Munthe John6, Wangberg Ingvar6, Artaxo Paulo7, Morais Fernando7, Jorge Barbosa Henrique De Melo7, Brito Joel7, Cairns Warren8, Barbante Carlo8, 9, Del Carmen Dieguez Maria10, Elizabeth Garcia Patricia10, Dommergue Aurelien11, 12, Angot Helene11, 12, Magand Olivier11, 12, Skov Henrik13, Horvat Milena14, Kotnik Joze14, Read Katie Alana15, Neves Luis Mendes16, Gawlik Bernd Manfred17, Sena Fabrizio17, Mashyanov Nikolay18, Obolkin Vladimir19, Wip Dennis20, Bin Feng Xin21, Zhang Hui21, Fu Xuewu21, Ramachandran Ramesh22, Cossa Daniel23, Knoery Joel24, Marusczak Nicolas23, Nerentorp Michelle25, Norstrom Claus13|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : CNR, Inst Atmospher Pollut, Arcavacata Di Rende, Italy.
2 : CNR, Inst Atmospher Pollut, Rome, Italy.
3 : US EPA, Off Res & Dev, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA.
4 : Helmholtz Zentrum, Geesthacht, Germany.
5 : South African Weather Serv, Climate & Environm Res & Monitoring, Cape Point GAW Stn, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
6 : Swedish Environm Res Inst Ltd, IVL, Gothenburg, Sweden.
7 : Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
8 : Univ Ca Foscari Venice, Venice, Italy.
9 : CNR, Inst Dynam Environm Proc, Venice, Italy.
10 : INIBIOMA CONICET UNComa, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.
11 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, Lab Glaciol & Geophys Environm, Grenoble, France.
12 : CNRS, Lab Glaciol & Geophys Environm, Grenoble, France.
13 : Aarhus Univ, Dept Environm Sci, Aarhus, Denmark.
14 : Jozef Stefan Inst, Lubliana, Slovenia.
15 : Univ York, NCAS, York, N Yorkshire, England.
16 : INMG Sao Vicente, Cape Verde Observ, Sao Vicente, Cape Verde.
17 : Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
18 : St Petersburg State Univ, St Petersburg, Russia.
19 : Limnol Inst SB RAS, Irkutsk, Russia.
20 : Univ Suriname, Dept Phys, Paramaribo, Surinam.
21 : Chinese Acad Sci, State Key Lab Environm Geochem, Inst Geochem, Guiyang, Peoples R China.
22 : Anna Univ, Inst Ocean Management, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India.
23 : IFREMER, LER PAC, Ctr Mediterranee, La Seyne Sur Mer, France.
24 : IFREMER, LBCM, Ctr Atlantique, Nantes, France.
25 : Chalmers, Gothenburg, Sweden.
|Source||Atmospheric Chemistry And Physics (1680-7316) (Copernicus Gesellschaft Mbh), 2016-09 , Vol. 16 , N. 18 , P. 11915-11935|
|WOS© Times Cited||164|
|Note||Special issue Global Mercury Observation System – Atmosphere (GMOS-A) Editor(s): N. Pirrone, F. Sprovieri, and R. Ebinghaus|
|Abstract||Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010–2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.|