Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007–2013 period

Type Article
Date 2016-11
Language English
Author(s) Houpert L.1, Durrieu De Madron X. Durrieu2, Testor P.3, Bosse A.3, D'Ortenzio F.4, Bouin M. N.5, 6, Dausse D.3, Le Goff H.3, Kunesch S.2, Labaste M.3, Coppola L.4, Mortier L.3, Raimbault P.7
Affiliation(s) 1 : Scottish Marine Inst, SAMS, Oban, Argyll, Scotland.
2 : CNRS, CEFREM, UPVD, UMR 5110, Perpignan, France.
3 : Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Oceanog & Climatol, UPMC,CNRS,IRD,MNHN,UMR 7159,IPSL, Paris, France.
4 : Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Lab Oceanog Villefranche, UPMC,CNRS, Villefranche Sur Mer, France.
5 : Meteo France, CNRS, CNRM, UMR 3589, Toulouse, France.
6 : Univ Brest, IFREMER, CNRS, IRD,LOPS,IUEM, Brest, France.
7 : Univ Toulon & Var, Aix Marseille Univ, Mediterranean Inst Oceanog, CNRS,IRD,UM 110, Marseille, France.
Source Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans (2169-9275) (Amer Geophysical Union), 2016-11 , Vol. 121 , N. 11 , P. 8139-8171
DOI 10.1002/2016JC011857
WOS© Times Cited 78
Keyword(s) physical oceanography, ocean observations, dense water formation, open-ocean deep convection, mixed layer, gulf of lions, deep water, Mediterranean Sea
Abstract We present here a unique oceanographic and meteorological dataset focus on the deep convection processes. Our results are essentially based on in situ data (mooring, research vessel, glider, and profiling float) collected from a multi-platform and integrated monitoring system (MOOSE: Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment), which monitored continuously the northwestern Mediterranean Sea since 2007, and in particular high-frequency potential temperature, salinity and current measurements from the mooring LION located within the convection region.

From 2009 to 2013, the mixed layer depth reaches the seabed, at a depth of 2330m, in February. Then, the violent vertical mixing of the whole water column lasts between 9 and 12 days setting up the characteristics of the newly-formed deep water. Each deep convection winter formed a new warmer and saltier '“vintage” of deep water. These sudden inputs of salt and heat in the deep ocean are responsible for trends in salinity (3.3+/-0.2 *10−3/yr) and potential temperature (3.2+/-0.5 *10−3°C/yr) observed from 2009 to 2013 for the 600-2300m layer.
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Houpert L., Durrieu De Madron X. Durrieu, Testor P., Bosse A., D'Ortenzio F., Bouin M. N., Dausse D., Le Goff H., Kunesch S., Labaste M., Coppola L., Mortier L., Raimbault P. (2016). Observations of open-ocean deep convection in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea: Seasonal and interannual variability of mixing and deep water masses for the 2007–2013 period. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 121(11), 8139-8171. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC011857 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00355/46588/