3D-printed flow system for determination of lead in natural waters

The development of 3D printing in recent years opens up a vast array of possibilities in the field of flow analysis. In the present study, a new 3D-printed flow system has been developed for the selective spectrophotometric determination of lead in natural waters. This system was composed of three 3D-printed units (sample treatment, mixing coil and detection) that might have been assembled without any tubing to form a complete flow system. Lead was determined in a two-step procedure. A preconcentration of lead was first carried out on TrisKem Pb Resin located in a 3D-printed column reservoir closed by a tapped screw. This resin showed a high extraction selectivity for lead over many tested potential interfering metals. In a second step, lead was eluted by ammonium oxalate in presence of 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR), and spectrophotometrically detected at 520 nm. The optimized flow system has exhibited a linear response from 3 to 120 µg L−1. Detection limit, coefficient of variation and sampling rate were evaluated at 2.7 µg L−1, 5.4% (n=6) and 4 sample h−1, respectively. This flow system stands out by its fully 3D design, portability and simplicity for low cost analysis of lead in natural waters.


Lead determination, 3D-printed MPFS system, Stereolithography, Natural waters

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Mattio Elodie, Robert-Peillard Fabien, Branger Catherine, Puzio Kinga, Margaillan Andre, Brach-Papa Christophe, Knoery Joel, Boudenne Jean-Luc, Coulomb Bruno (2017). 3D-printed flow system for determination of lead in natural waters. Talanta. 168. 298-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.03.059, https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00377/48770/

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