Deep and abyssal ocean warming from 35 years of repeat hydrography
|Author(s)||Desbruyeres Damien1, Purkey Sarah G.2, 3, McDonagh Elaine L.1, Johnson Gregory C.4, King Brian A.1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
2 : Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, New York, NY USA.
3 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA.
4 : NOAA Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
|Source||Geophysical Research Letters (0094-8276) (Amer Geophysical Union), 2016-10 , Vol. 43 , N. 19 , P. 10356-10365|
|WOS© Times Cited||89|
|Keyword(s)||repeat hydrography, ocean heat content, GO-SHIP|
Global and regional ocean warming deeper than 2000m is investigated using 35years of sustained repeat hydrographic survey data starting in 1981. The global long-term temperature trend below 2000m, representing the time period 1991-2010, is equivalent to a mean heat flux of 0.065 0.040Wm(-2) applied over the Earth's surface area. The strongest warming rates are found in the abyssal layer (4000-6000m), which contributes to one third of the total heat uptake with the largest contribution from the Southern and Pacific Oceans. A similar regional pattern is found in the deep layer (2000-4000m), which explains the remaining two thirds of the total heat uptake yet with larger uncertainties. The global average warming rate did not change within uncertainties pre-2000 versus post-2000, whereas ocean average warming rates decreased in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and increased in the Atlantic and Southern Oceans.