Multiscale Observations of Deep Convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea During Winter 2012-2013 Using Multiple Platforms

Type Article
Date 2018-03
Language English
Author(s) Testor Pierre1, Bosse Anthony2, 3, Houpert Loic4, Margirier FelixORCID1, Mortier Laurent5, Legoff Herve1, Dausse Denis1, Labaste Matthieu1, Karstensen Johannes6, Hayes Daniel7, Olita Antonio8, Ribotti Alberto8, Schroeder Katrin9, Chiggiato Jacopo9, Onken Reiner10, Heslop Emma11, Mourre Baptiste11, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio12, Mayot Nicolas12, Lavigne Heloise12, de Fommervault Orens12, 13, Coppola Laurent12, Prieur Louis12, Taillandier Vincent12, de Madron Xavier Durrieu14, Bourrin Francois14, Many Gael14, Damien Pierre15, Estournel Claude15, Marsaleix PatrickORCID15, Taupier-Letage Isabelle16, Raimbault Patrick16, Waldman Robin17, Bouin Marie-Noelle17, 18, Giordani Herve17, Caniaux Guy17, Somot Samuel17, Ducrocq Veronique17, Conan Pascal19
Affiliation(s) 1 : UPMC Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, CNRS,IRD,MNHN,UMR 7159, Lab Oceanog & Climatol LOCEAN,IPSL,Observ Ecce Te, Paris, France.
2 : Univ Bergen, Inst Geophys, Bergen, Norway.
3 : Bjerknes Ctr Climate Res, Bergen, Norway.
4 : Scottish Assoc Marine Sci, Oban, Argyll, Scotland.
5 : ENSTA Paristech, Lab Oceanog & Climatol LOCEAN, Palaiseau, France.
6 : GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany.
7 : Univ Cyprus, Oceanog Ctr, Nicosia, Cyprus.
8 : CNR, Ist Ambiente Marino Costiero CNR IAMC Oristano, Oristano, Italy.
9 : CNR, Ist Sci Marine CNR ISMAR, Venice, Italy.
10 : Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany.
11 : SOCIB, Mallorca, Spain.
12 : UPMC Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, LOV, Observ Oceanol Villefranche,UMR 7093, Paris, France.
13 : Ctr Invest Cient & Educ Super Ensenada, Dept Oceanog Fis, Ensenada, Baja California, Mexico.
14 : Univ Perpignan, CNRS, Ctr Format & Rech Environm Mditerranens CEFREM, Perpignan, France.
15 : Univ Toulouse, CNRS, Observ Midi Pyrenees, LA, Toulouse, France.
16 : Univ Toulon & Var, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD,MIO,UM 110, Marseille, France.
17 : Meteo France, CNRS, CNRM, UMR 3589, Toulouse, France.
18 : IUEM, LOPS, IFREMER, CNRS,IRD,UBO, Plouzane, France.
19 : UPMC Univ Pierre & Marie Curie Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Observ Oceanol Banyuls Mer, Lab Oceanog Microbienne LOMIC,UMR 7093, Paris, France.
Source Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans (2169-9275) (Amer Geophysical Union), 2018-03 , Vol. 123 , N. 3 , P. 1745-1776
DOI 10.1002/2016JC012671
WOS© Times Cited 59
Note This article also appears in: Dense water formations in the North Western Mediterranean: from the physical forcings to the biogeochemical consequences
Keyword(s) ocean observation, oceanic deep convection, Mediterranean Sea, energy and buoyancy fluxes, eddies, plumes, symmetric instability
Abstract

During winter 2012-2013, open-ocean deep convection which is a major driver for the thermohaline circulation and ventilation of the ocean, occurred in the Gulf of Lions (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea) and has been thoroughly documented thanks in particular to the deployment of several gliders, Argo profiling floats, several dedicated ship cruises, and a mooring array during a period of about a year. Thanks to these intense observational efforts, we show that deep convection reached the bottom in winter early in February 2013 in a area of maximum 28±3 109m9. We present new quantitative results with estimates of heat and salt content at the sub-basin scale at different time scales (on the seasonal scale to a ten days basis) through optimal interpolation techniques, and robust estimates of the deep water formation rate of 2.0 ± 0.2Sν. We provide an overview of the spatio-temporal coverage that has been reached throughout the seasons this year and we highlight some results based on data analysis and numerical modeling that are presented in this special issue. They concern key circulation features for the deep convection and the subsequent bloom such as Submesoscale Coherent Vortices (SCVs), the plumes and symmetric instability at the edge of the deep convection area.

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Testor Pierre, Bosse Anthony, Houpert Loic, Margirier Felix, Mortier Laurent, Legoff Herve, Dausse Denis, Labaste Matthieu, Karstensen Johannes, Hayes Daniel, Olita Antonio, Ribotti Alberto, Schroeder Katrin, Chiggiato Jacopo, Onken Reiner, Heslop Emma, Mourre Baptiste, D'Ortenzio Fabrizio, Mayot Nicolas, Lavigne Heloise, de Fommervault Orens, Coppola Laurent, Prieur Louis, Taillandier Vincent, de Madron Xavier Durrieu, Bourrin Francois, Many Gael, Damien Pierre, Estournel Claude, Marsaleix Patrick, Taupier-Letage Isabelle, Raimbault Patrick, Waldman Robin, Bouin Marie-Noelle, Giordani Herve, Caniaux Guy, Somot Samuel, Ducrocq Veronique, Conan Pascal (2018). Multiscale Observations of Deep Convection in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea During Winter 2012-2013 Using Multiple Platforms. Journal Of Geophysical Research-oceans, 123(3), 1745-1776. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1002/2016JC012671 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00415/52639/