Pentaplacodinium saltonense gen. et sp. nov. (Dinophyceae) and its relationship to the cyst-defined genus Operculodinium and yessotoxin-producing Protoceratium reticulatum
|Author(s)||Mertens Kenneth1, Carbonell-Moore Maria Consuelo2, Pospeloya Vera3, Head Martin J.4, Highfield Andrea5, Schroeder Declan5, 6, Gu Haifeng7, Andree Karl B.8, Fernandez Margarita8, Yamaguchi Aika9, Takano Yoshihito10, Matsuoka Kazumi10, Nezan Elisabeth11, Bilien Gwenael11, Okolodkov Yuri12, Koike Kazuhiko13, Hoppenrath Mona14, Pfaff Maya15, Pitcher Grant16, Al-Muftah Abdulrahman17, Rochon Andre18, Lim Po Teen19, Leaw Chui Pin19, Lim Zhen Fei19, Ellegaard Marianne20|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Ghent, Res Unit Palaeontol, Krijgslaan 281 S8, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
2 : Oregon State Univ, Coll Agr Sci, Dept Bot & Plant Pathol, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 USA.
3 : Univ Victoria, Sch Earth & Ocean Sci, OEASB A405,POB 1700,Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 2Y2, Canada.
4 : Brock Univ, Dept Earth Sci, 1812 Sir Isaac Brock Way, St Catharines, ON L2S 3A1, Canada.
5 : Marine Biol Assoc UK, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon, England.
6 : Univ Reading, Sch Biol Sci, Reading RG6 6AJ, Berks, England.
7 : SOA, Inst Oceanog 3, Xiamen 361005, Peoples R China.
8 : IRTA, Km 5-5, San Carlos de la Rapita 43540, Spain.
9 : Kobe Univ, Res Ctr Inland Seas, Kobe, Hyogo 6578501, Japan.
10 : Nagasaki Univ, Inst East China Sea Res ECSER, 1551-7 Taira Machi, Nagasaki 8512213, Japan.
11 : IFREMER, LER BO, Stn Biol Marine, Pl Croix,BP40537, F-29185 Concarneau, France.
12 : Univ Veracruzana, Inst Ciencias Marinas & Pesquerias, Calle Hidalgo 617, Boca Del Rio 94290, Veracruz, Mexico.
13 : Hiroshima Univ, Grad Sch Biosphere Sci, Kagamiyama 1-4-4, Higashihiroshima, Hiroshima 7398528, Japan.
14 : Deutsch Zentrum Marine Biodivers Forsch DZMB, Sudstrand 44, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
15 : Univ Cape Town, Ma RE Inst, Marine Biol Res Ctr, Zool Dept, ZA-7701 Rondebosch, South Africa.
16 : Marine & Coastal Management, Private Bag X2, ZA-8012 Cape Town, South Africa.
17 : Qatar Univ, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Doha, Qatar.
18 : Univ Quebec Rimouski, Inst Sci Mer Rimouski ISMER, 310 Allee Ursulines, Rimouski, PQ G5L 3A1, Canada.
19 : Univ Malaya, Inst Ocean & Earth Sci, Bachok 16310, Kelantan, Malaysia.
20 : Univ Copenhagen, Dept Plant & Environm Sci, Thorvaldsensvej 40, DK-1871 Frederiksberg, Denmark.
|Source||Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier Science Bv), 2018-01 , Vol. 71 , P. 57-77|
|WOS© Times Cited||20|
|Keyword(s)||Pentaplacodinium, Protoceratium, Precingular plates, Salton Sea, Ceratocorys, Operculodinium, Cribroperidinioideae|
trains of a dinoflagellate from the Salton Sea, previously identified as Protoceratium reticulatum and yessotoxin producing, have been reexamined morphologically and genetically and Pentaplacodinium saltonense n. gen. et sp. is erected to accommodate this species. Pentaplacodinium saltonense differs from Protoceratium reticulatum (Claparède et Lachmann 1859) Bütschli 1885 in the number of precingular plates (five vs. six), cingular displacement (two widths vs. one), and distinct cyst morphology. Incubation experiments (excystment and encystment) show that the resting cyst of Pentaplacodinium saltonense is morphologically most similar to the cyst-defined species Operculodinium israelianum (Rossignol, 1962) Wall (1967) and O. psilatum Wall (1967). Collections of comparative material from around the globe (including Protoceratium reticulatum and the genus Ceratocorys) and single cell PCR were used to clarify molecular phylogenies. Variable regions in the LSU (three new sequences), SSU (12 new sequences) and intergenic ITS 1–2 (14 new sequences) were obtained. These show that Pentaplacodinium saltonense and Protoceratium reticulatum form two distinct clades. Pentaplacodinium saltonense forms a monophyletic clade with several unidentified strains from Malaysia. LSU and SSU rDNA sequences of three species of Ceratocorys (C. armata, C. gourreti, C. horrida) from the Mediterranean and several other unidentified strains from Malaysia form a well-supported sister clade. The unique phylogenetic position of an unidentified strain from Hawaii is also documented and requires further examination. In addition, based on the V9 SSU topology (bootstrap values >80%), specimens from Elands Bay (South Africa), originally described as Gonyaulax grindleyi by Reinecke (1967), cluster with Protoceratium reticulatum. The known range of Pentaplacodinium saltonense is tropical to subtropical, and its cyst is recorded as a fossil in upper Cenozoic sediments. Protoceratium reticulatum and Pentaplacodinium saltonense seem to inhabit different niches: motile stages of these dinoflagellates have not been found in the same plankton sample.