Evaluation of toxicity of Deepwater Horizon slick oil on spat of the oyster Crassostrea virginica

Type Article
Date 2018-01
Language English
Author(s) Vignier Julien1, 2, Rolton Anne2, 3, Soudant Philippe3, Chu Fu-Lin E.4, Robert ReneORCID5, Volety Aswani K.2, 6
Affiliation(s) 1 : Cawthron Inst, 98 Halifax St East, Nelson 7010, New Zealand.
2 : Florida Gulf Coast Univ, Dept Marine & Ecol Sci, Coll Arts & Sci, Ft Myers, FL 33965 USA.
3 : IUEM UBO, Lab Sci Environm Marin, UMR LEMAR 6539, Technopole Brest Iroise, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
4 : VIMS, Dept Aquat Hlth Sci, Coll William & Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 USA.
5 : IFREMER, Unite Littoral, Ctr Bretagne ZI Pointe Diable, CS 10070, F-29280 Plouzane, France.
6 : Univ North Carolina Wilmington, Bear Hall 146,601 S Coll Rd, Wilmington, NC 28403 USA.
Meeting International Conference on Conservation Agriculture and Sustainable Land Use (CASLU), Budapest, HUNGARY, MAY 31-JUN 02, 2016
Source Environmental Science And Pollution Research (0944-1344) (Springer Heidelberg), 2018-01 , Vol. 25 , N. 2 , P. 1176-1190
DOI 10.1007/s11356-017-0476-2
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) Oyster spat, Deepwater Horizon oil, Sublethal, Tissue, Inflammatory response, Histopathology
Abstract

The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig generated the largest marine oil spill in US history with millions of barrels of crude oil released in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is an ecologically and economically important species in the northern GoM. Due to its biological characteristics (sessile, filter feeding), juvenile oysters may have been affected. This study investigated the effects of surface-collected DWH oil prepared as high-energy water-accommodated fraction (HEWAF) on the survival of 2-month-old oyster spat, and evaluated the potential impacts of HEWAF on particle clearance rate and spat tissue. Exposure of oysters to a range of oil/HEWAF (0-7-66-147-908-3450 mu g tPAH50 (sum of 50 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) L-1) resulted in non-dose-dependent mortalities and reduced clearance rates of algal food (Tisochrysis lutea). A morphometric study of the digestive tubules (DGTs) indicated a dose-dependent response to oil exposure on lumen dilation, on epithelium thinning of the DGT, and a significant change in DGT synchrony (LOEC = 66 mu g tPAH50 L-1). This finding suggests that structural changes occurred in the digestive gland of exposed oysters most likely due to an oil-related stress. In addition, histological observations showed that tissues in contact with HEWAF (gills, palp, connective tissue, digestive gland) were adversely impacted at >= 7 mu g tPAH50 L-1, and exhibited pathological symptoms typical of an inflammatory response (e.g., hemocyte diapedesis and infiltration, syncytia, epithelium sloughing).

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