Toxicological Investigations on the Sea Urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoid) from Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva, French Polynesia): Evidence for the Presence of Pacific Ciguatoxins
|Author(s)||Darius Helene Taiana1, Roue Melanie2, Sibat Manoella3, Viallon Jerome1, Gatti Clemence Mahana Iti1, Vandersea Mark W.4, Tester Patricia A.5, Litaker R. Wayne4, Amzil Zouher3, Hess Philipp3, Chinain Mireille1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : ILM, Lab Tox Microalgae, UMR 241, EIO, POB 30, F-98713 Tahiti, French Polynesi, France.
2 : IRD, UMR 241, EIO, POB 53267, F-98716 Tahiti, French Polynesi, France.
3 : IFREMER, Phycotoxins Lab, F-44311 Nantes, France.
4 : Natl Ocean Serv, Natl Ocean & Atmospher Adm, Ctr Coastal Ocean Sci, Beaufort Lab, Beaufort, NC 28516 USA.
5 : Ocean Tester LLC, Beaufort, NC 28516 USA.
|Source||Marine Drugs (1660-3397) (Mdpi), 2018-04 , Vol. 16 , N. 4 , P. 122 (21p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||8|
|Note||This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Invertebrate Toxins|
|Keyword(s)||ciguatera poisoning, ciguatoxins, Tripneustes gratilla, sea urchin, Echinoidea, Gambierdiscus polynesiensis, windowscreens, artificial substrates, qPCR assays, CBA-N2a, LC-MS/MS|
The sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla (Toxopneustidae, Echinoids) is a source of protein for many islanders in the Indo-West Pacific. It was previously reported to occasionally cause ciguatera-like poisoning; however, the exact nature of the causative agent was not confirmed. In April and July 2015, ciguatera poisonings were reported following the consumption of T. gratilla in Anaho Bay (Nuku Hiva Island, Marquesas archipelago, French Polynesia). Patient symptomatology was recorded and sea urchin samples were collected from Anaho Bay in July 2015 and November 2016. Toxicity analysis using the neuroblastoma cell–based assay (CBA-N2a) detected the presence of ciguatoxins (CTXs) in T. gratilla samples. Gambierdiscus species were predominant in the benthic assemblages of Anaho Bay, and G. polynesiensis was highly prevalent in in vitro cultures according to qPCR results. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses revealed that P-CTX-3B was the major ciguatoxin congener in toxic sea urchin samples, followed by 51-OH-P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-3C, P-CTX-4A, and P-CTX-4B. Between July 2015 and November 2016, the toxin content in T. gratilla decreased, but was consistently above the safety limit allowed for human consumption. This study provides evidence of CTX bioaccumulation in T. gratilla as a cause of ciguatera-like poisoning associated with a documented symptomatology.