Calibration of the Normalized Radar Cross Section for Sentinel-1 Wave Mode

Type Article
Date 2019-03
Language English
Author(s) Li Huimin1, 2, Mouche AlexisORCID1, Stopa Justin E.3, Chapron BertrandORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Univ Brest, Lab Oceanog Phys & Spatiale, Inst Francais Rech Exploitat Mer, CNRS,IRD,IUEM, F-29280 Brest, France
2 : UBL, IMT Atlantique, Lab STICC, F-29238 Brest, France
3 : Univ Hawaii Manoa, Dept Ocean Resources & Engn, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA
Source Ieee Transactions On Geoscience And Remote Sensing (0196-2892) (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)), 2019-03 , Vol. 57 , N. 3 , P. 1514-1522
DOI 10.1109/TGRS.2018.2867035
WOS© Times Cited 11
Keyword(s) CMOD5.N, radiometric calibration, Sentinel-1A (S-1A), Wave mode (WV)

Sentinel-1 (S-1) is a two-satellite constellation for continuity of operational synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations. Wave mode (WV) is the default mode over open ocean for S-1 to monitor global ocean waves and wind field. Therefore, proper radiometric calibration is essential to accurately infer these geophysical quantities. Based on the global data set acquired by S-1A WV, assessment of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) is carried out through comparison with CMOD5.N predictions over open ocean. The calibration accuracy quantified by NRCS residuals between SAR measurements and CMOD5.N demonstrates distinct features for two incidence angles (23.8° and 36.8°). Particularly, NRCS at 23.8° is overall consistent with CMOD5.N, while NRCS at 36.8° displays great deviation. Two recalibration methods are then implemented by examining the backscattering profile over Amazon rain forest and ocean calibration. Both methods show the necessity for recalibration and obtain comparable correction factors for WV1 and WV2, respectively. The NRCS residuals by applying both methods are significantly reduced toward zero. By comparison, ocean calibration is more efficient and practical to implement.

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