New genera and species from the Equatorial Pacific provide phylogenetic insights into deep-sea Polynoidae (Annelida)

Type Article
Date 2019-03
Language English
Author(s) Bonifacio Paulo1, Menot LenaickORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, Centre Bretagne, REM EEP, Laboratoire Environnement Profond, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, CS 10070, F-29280 Plouzané, France
Source Zoological Journal Of The Linnean Society (0024-4082) (Oxford University Press (OUP)), 2019-03 , Vol. 185 , N. 3 , P. 555-635
DOI 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly063
Keyword(s) deep sea, identification key, molecular systematics, morphology, new genera, new species, phylogeny, Polychaeta
Abstract

Polynoidae contains ~900 species within 18 subfamilies, some of them restricted to the deep sea. Macellicephalinae is the most diverse among these deep-sea subfamilies. In the abyssal Equatorial Pacific Ocean, the biodiversity of benthic communities is at stake in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) owing to increased industrial interest in polymetallic nodules. The records of polychaetes in this region are scarce. Data gathered during the JPI Oceans cruise SO239 made a significant contribution to fill this gap, with five different localities sampled between 4000 and 5000 m depth. Benthic samples collected using an epibenthic sledge or a remotely operated vehicle resulted in a large collection of polynoids. The aims of this study are as follows: (1) to describe new species of deep-sea polynoids using morphology and molecular data (COI, 16S and 18S); and (2) to evaluate the monophyly of Macellicephalinae. Based on molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses, ten subfamilies are synonymized with Macellicephalinae in order to create a homogeneous clade determined by the absence of lateral antennae. Within this clade, the Anantennata clade was well supported, being determined by the absence of a median antenna. Furthermore, 17 new species and four new genera are described, highlighting the high diversity hidden in the deep. A taxonomic key for the 37 valid genera of the subfamily Macellicephalinae is provided.

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