Combining population genomics and forward simulations to investigate stocking impacts: A case study of Muskellunge ( Esox masquinongy ) from the St. Lawrence River basin

Type Article
Date 2019-06
Language English
Author(s) Rougemont Quentin1, Carrier Anne1, Le Luyer JeremyORCID1, 2, Ferchaud Anne-Laure1, Farrell John M.3, Hatin Daniel4, Brodeur Philippe5, Bernatchez Louis1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Département de biologie; Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS); Université Laval; G1V 0A6 Québec ,Canada
2 : IFREMER; Unité Ressources Marines en Polynésie; Centre Océanologique du Pacifique - Vairao - BP 49 98179 Taravao - Tahiti ,Polynésie Française
3 : Department of Environmental and Forest Biology; State University of New York; College of Environmental Science and Forestry; 13210 Syracuse New York ,USA
4 : Ministère des Forêts; de la Faune et des Parcs; Direction de la Gestion de la Faune; Estrie-Montréal-Montérégie-Laval; 201 Place Charles-Le Moyne Longueuil Québec J4K 2T5 ,Canada
5 : Ministère des Forêts; de la Faune et des Parcs; Direction de la gestion de la faune de la Mauricie et du Centre-du-Québec; 100 rue Laviolette, bureau 207 Trois-Rivières G9A 5S9 ,Canada
Source Evolutionary Applications (1752-4571) (Wiley), 2019-06 , Vol. 12 , N. 5 , P. 902-922
DOI 10.1111/eva.12765
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) admixture, Esox masquinongy, forward simulations, gene flow, genomic, stocking
Abstract

Understanding the genetic and evolutionary impacts of stocking on wild fish populations has long been of interest as negative consequences such as reduced fitness and loss of genetic diversity are commonly reported outcomes. In an attempt to sustain a fishery, managers implemented nearly five decades of extensive stocking of over a million Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), a native species in the Lower St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada). We investigated the effect of this stocking on population genetic structure and allelic diversity in the St. Lawrence River in addition to tributaries and several stocked inland lakes. Using Genotype‐By‐Sequencing (GBS), we genotyped 643 individuals representing 22 locations and combined this information with forward simulations to investigate the genetic consequences of long‐term stocking. Individuals native to the St. Lawrence watershed were genetically differentiated from stocking sources and tributaries and inland lakes were naturally differentiated from the main river. Empirical data and simulations within the St. Lawrence River revealed weak stocking effects on admixture patterns. Our data suggest that the genetic structure associated with stocked fish was diluted into its relatively large effective population size. This interpretation is also consistent with a hypothesis that selection against introgression was in operation and relatively efficient within the large St. Lawrence River system. In contrast smaller populations from adjacent tributaries and lakes displayed greater stocking‐related admixture that resulted in comparatively higher heterozygosity than the St. Lawrence. Finally, individuals from inland lakes that were established by stocking maintained a close affinity with their source populations. This study illustrated a benefit of combining extensive genomic data with forward simulations for improved inference regarding population‐level genetic effects of long‐term stocking, and its relevance for fishery management decision making.

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Rougemont Quentin, Carrier Anne, Le Luyer Jeremy, Ferchaud Anne-Laure, Farrell John M., Hatin Daniel, Brodeur Philippe, Bernatchez Louis (2019). Combining population genomics and forward simulations to investigate stocking impacts: A case study of Muskellunge ( Esox masquinongy ) from the St. Lawrence River basin. Evolutionary Applications, 12(5), 902-922. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1111/eva.12765 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00476/58791/