Taxonomy and toxicity of Prorocentrum from Perhentian Islands (Malaysia), with a description of a non-toxigenic species Prorocentrum malayense sp. nov. (Dinophyceae)

Type Article
Date 2019-03
Language English
Author(s) Lim Zhen Fei1, Luo Zhaohe2, Lee Li Keat1, Hii Kieng Soon1, Teng Sing Tung3, Chan Leo Lai4, Chomérat NicolasORCID5, Krock Bernd6, Gu Haifeng2, Lim Po Teen1, Leaw Chui Pin1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Bachok Marine Research Station, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, 16310 Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia
2 : Third Institute of Oceanography, SOA, Xiamen, 361005, China
3 : Faculty of Resource Science and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia
4 : State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 999077, China
5 : IFREMER, Department ODE, Laboratory Environment and Resources Bretagne Occidentale, Station de Biologie Marine, Place de la Croix, 29900, Concarneau, France
6 : Alfred Wegener Institut-Helmholtz Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Handelshafen 12, D-27570, Bremerhaven, Germany
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2019-03 , Vol. 83 , P. 95-108
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2019.01.007
WOS© Times Cited 19
Keyword(s) Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, ITS2 secondary structure, Morphology, Periflagellar area, Phylogeny

Thirteen isolates of Prorocentrum species were established from the coral reefs of Perhentian Islands Marine Park, Malaysia and underwent morphological observations and molecular characterization. Six species were found: P. caipirignum, P. concavum, P. cf. emarginatum, P. lima, P. mexicanum and a new morphotype, herein designated as P. malayense sp. nov. Prorocentrum malayense, a species closely related to P. leve, P. cf. foraminosum, P. sp. aff. foraminossum, and P. concavum (Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. 2018), is distinguished from its congeners as having larger thecal pore size and a more deeply excavated V-shaped periflagellar area. Platelet arrangement in the periflagellar area of P. malayense is unique, with the presence of platelet 1a and 1b, platelet 2 being the most anterior platelet, and a broad calabash-shaped platelet 3. The species exhibits consistent genetic sequence divergences for the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (LSU rDNA) and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2). The phylogenetic inferences further confirmed that it represents an independent lineage, closely related to species in Clade A sensu Chomérat et al. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of compensatory base changes (CBCs). Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of okadaic acid in P. lima (1.0–1.6 pg cell˗1) and P. caipirignum (3.1 pg cell˗1); this is the first report of toxigenic P. caipirignum in the Southeast Asian region. Other Prorocentrum species tested, including the new species, however, were below the detection limit.

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Lim Zhen Fei, Luo Zhaohe, Lee Li Keat, Hii Kieng Soon, Teng Sing Tung, Chan Leo Lai, Chomérat Nicolas, Krock Bernd, Gu Haifeng, Lim Po Teen, Leaw Chui Pin (2019). Taxonomy and toxicity of Prorocentrum from Perhentian Islands (Malaysia), with a description of a non-toxigenic species Prorocentrum malayense sp. nov. (Dinophyceae). Harmful Algae, 83, 95-108. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :