The Tropical Atlantic Observing System

Type Article
Date 2019-05
Language English
Author(s) Foltz G. R.1, Brandt P.2, 3, Richter I.4, Rodríguez-Fonseca B.5, 6, Hernandez F.7, 8, Dengler M.2, Rodrigues R. R.9, Schmidt J. O.10, Yu L.11, Lefevre N.12, Da Cunha L. Cotrim13, McPhaden M. J.14, Araujo M.8, Karstensen J.2, Hahn J.2, Martín-Rey M.15, Patricola C. M.16, Poli P.17, Zuidema P.18, Hummels R.2, Perez Rc1, Hatje V.19, Lübbecke J. F.2, 3, Polo I.5, Lumpkin R.1, Bourlès Bernard20, Asuquo F. E.21, Lehodey P.22, Conchon A.22, Chang P.23, 24, Dandin P.25, Schmid C.1, Sutton A.14, Giordani H.25, Xue Y.26, Illig S.27, 28, Losada T.5, Grodsky S. A.29, Gasparin F.30, Lee T.31, Mohino E.5, Nobre P.32, Wanninkhof R.1, Keenlyside N.33, 34, Garcon V.27, Sánchez-Gómez E.15, Nnamchi H. C.2, Drévillon M.30, Storto A.35, 36, Remy E.30, Lazar A.37, Speich S.38, Goes M.1, 39, Dorrington T.40, Johns W. E.18, Moum J. N.41, Robinson C.42, Perruche Coralie30, de Souza R. B.32, Gaye A. T.43, López-Parages J.5, Monerie P.-A.44, Castellanos P.45, Benson N. U.46, Hounkonnou M. N.47, Duhá J. Trotte48, Laxenaire R.38, Reul NicolasORCID49
Affiliation(s) 1 : NOAA/AOML, Miami, FL, United States
2 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
3 : Kiel University, Kiel, Germany
4 : Application Laboratory, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama, Japan
5 : Departamento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
6 : Instituto de Geociencias IGEO, UCM-CSIC, Madrid, Spain
7 : IRD, LEGOS, Mercator Océan, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
8 : Department of Oceanography, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil
9 : Department of Oceanography, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil
10 : Kiel Marine Science, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany
11 : Department of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
12 : LOCEAN-IPSL, Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris, France
13 : Faculdade de Oceanografia, BrOA, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
14 : NOAA/PMEL, Seattle, WA, United States
15 : UMR5318 CECI CNRS-CERFACS, Toulouse, France
16 : Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, United States
17 : Center for Marine Meteorology, Météo-France, Brest, France
18 : Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States
19 : CIEnAm, Departamento de Química Analítica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
20 : Centre IRD de Bretagne, Technopole Pointe du Diable, Plouzané, France
21 : Faculty of Oceanography, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
22 : Collecte Localisation Satellites, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
23 : Department of Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States
24 : Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Qingdao Collaborative Innovation Center of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China
25 : Direction de la Recherche, Météo-France, Toulouse, France
26 : NOAA/NCEP Climate Prediction Center, College Park, MD, United States
27 : LEGOS, CNRS/IRD/UT/CNES, Toulouse, France
28 : Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
29 : Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States
30 : Mercator Ocean, Ramonville-Saint-Agne, France
31 : JPL, NASA, Pasadena, CA, United States
32 : Center for Weather Forecast and Climate Studies – CPTEC, National Institute for Space Research (INPE), Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil
33 : Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
34 : Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
35 : Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna, Italy
36 : Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation (CMRE), La Spezia, Italy
37 : LOCEAN-IPSL, Sorbonne Universités (UPMC, Univ. Paris 06), CNRS/IRD/MNHN, Paris, France
38 : Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, CNRS, ENS, UMR Ecole Polytech 8539, Paris, France
39 : CIMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States
40 : Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), London, United Kingdom
41 : College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States
42 : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
43 : ESP, University Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD), Laboratoire de Physique de l’Atmosphère et de l’Océan Siméon Fongang, Dakar, Senegal
44 : National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
45 : MARE, Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal
46 : Department of Chemistry, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria
47 : Research Laboratory of Mathematics and Mathematical Physics, University of Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Benin
48 : Directorate General for Science, Technology and Nuclear Development of the Brazilian Navy, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
49 : Laboratoire d’Océanographie Physique et Spatiale (LOPS), Université de Bretagne Occidentale, CNRS, Ifremer, IRD, Brest, France
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-05 , Vol. 6 , N. 206 , P. 36p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00206
WOS© Times Cited 33
Keyword(s) tropical Atlantic Ocean, observing system, weather, climate, hurricanes, biogeochemistry, ecosystems, coupled model bias
Abstract

The tropical Atlantic is home to multiple coupled climate variations covering a wide range of timescales and impacting societally relevant phenomena such as continental rainfall, Atlantic hurricane activity, oceanic biological productivity, and atmospheric circulation in the equatorial Pacific. The tropical Atlantic also connects the southern and northern branches of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation and receives freshwater input from some of the world’s largest rivers. To address these diverse, unique, and interconnected research challenges, a rich network of ocean observations has developed, building on the backbone of the Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic (PIRATA). This network has evolved naturally over time and out of necessity in order to address the most important outstanding scientific questions and to improve predictions of tropical Atlantic severe weather and global climate variability and change. The tropical Atlantic observing system is motivated by goals to understand and better predict phenomena such as tropical Atlantic interannual to decadal variability and climate change; multidecadal variability and its links to the meridional overturning circulation; air-sea fluxes of CO2 and their implications for the fate of anthropogenic CO2; the Amazon River plume and its interactions with biogeochemistry, vertical mixing, and hurricanes; the highly productive eastern boundary and equatorial upwelling systems; and oceanic oxygen minimum zones, their impacts on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems, and their feedbacks to climate. Past success of the tropical Atlantic observing system is the result of an international commitment to sustained observations and scientific cooperation, a willingness to evolve with changing research and monitoring needs, and a desire to share data openly with the scientific community and operational centers. The observing system must continue to evolve in order to meet an expanding set of research priorities and operational challenges. This paper discusses the tropical Atlantic observing system, including emerging scientific questions that demand sustained ocean observations, the potential for further integration of the observing system, and the requirements for sustaining and enhancing the tropical Atlantic observing system.

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Foltz G. R., Brandt P., Richter I., Rodríguez-Fonseca B., Hernandez F., Dengler M., Rodrigues R. R., Schmidt J. O., Yu L., Lefevre N., Da Cunha L. Cotrim, McPhaden M. J., Araujo M., Karstensen J., Hahn J., Martín-Rey M., Patricola C. M., Poli P., Zuidema P., Hummels R., Perez Rc, Hatje V., Lübbecke J. F., Polo I., Lumpkin R., Bourlès Bernard, Asuquo F. E., Lehodey P., Conchon A., Chang P., Dandin P., Schmid C., Sutton A., Giordani H., Xue Y., Illig S., Losada T., Grodsky S. A., Gasparin F., Lee T., Mohino E., Nobre P., Wanninkhof R., Keenlyside N., Garcon V., Sánchez-Gómez E., Nnamchi H. C., Drévillon M., Storto A., Remy E., Lazar A., Speich S., Goes M., Dorrington T., Johns W. E., Moum J. N., Robinson C., Perruche Coralie, de Souza R. B., Gaye A. T., López-Parages J., Monerie P.-A., Castellanos P., Benson N. U., Hounkonnou M. N., Duhá J. Trotte, Laxenaire R., Reul Nicolas (2019). The Tropical Atlantic Observing System. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(206), 36p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00206 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00494/60612/