The Sea of Marmara during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 6

Multi-proxy analyses and lithology of two cores, MRS-CS18 and MRS-CS27, from the İmralı Basin of the Sea of Marmara (SoM) provide novel information on environmental conditions, relative sea level, and sill depths of the straits of Bosporus and Dardanelles during the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 6. The fossil and multi-proxy geochemical records show that lacustrine conditions prevailed in the SoM during most of MIS 6, from 171 to 134 ka BP, and that the transition to marine conditions during Termination II took place at ∼134.06 ± 1.10 ka BP. MIS 5 interstadials a, c, and e witnessed the formation of three sapropels (MSAP-2, MSAP-3 and MSAP-4) under suboxic to anoxic marine conditions, whereas during stadials MIS 5b (∼94–86) and MIS 5d (∼112–105 ka BP), lacustrine and marine conditions with deposition of sediments having relatively low TOC contents (<2%) prevailed, respectively. Consideration of the global sea level, together with the timing of the marine reconnection of the SoM during Termination II and persistence of the marine conditions during MIS 5, except for MIS 5b and later part of MIS 5a, suggests that the Dardanelles sill depth was at ∼ -75 ± 5 m during the reconnection at Termination II and at −55 ± 5 m during most of MIS 5. On similar considerations of the Black Sea marine reconnections and disruptions during the MIS 5, a sill depth of −35 to −40 m (similar to the present day depth) is indicated for the Bosporus Strait.

The SoM geochemical proxy records correlate well with the regional terrestrial and marine records and the NGRIP oxygen isotope record with its Stadial and Interstadial phases, showing the common effect of the North Atlantic climatic events triggered by the perturbations in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. However, the amplitude of the oscillations recorded in the SoM during MIS 6 (Penultimate Glacial Period) is relatively small compared to the MIS 4 to MIS 2 (Last Glacial Period).


Sea of Marmara, Late quaternary, Marine isotope stages 5-6, Eastern Europe, Paleoceanography, Sedimentology-marine cores, Geochemical proxies, Sapropels

Full Text

Publisher's official version
185 Mo
Multimedia component 1.
3222 Ko
Author's final draft
5618 Mo
How to cite
Çağatay M. Namık, Eriş K. Kadir, Makaroğlu Özlem, Yakupoğlu Nurettin, Henry Pierre, Leroy Suzanne A.G., Uçarkuş Gülsen, Sakınç Mehmet, Yalamaz Burak, Bozyiğit Cerennaz, Kende Julia (2019). The Sea of Marmara during Marine Isotope Stages 5 and 6. Quaternary Science Reviews. 220. 124-141.,

Copy this text