On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Roemmich Dean1, Alford Matthew H.1, Claustre HervéORCID2, Johnson Kenneth3, King Brian4, Moum James5, Oke Peter6, Owens W. Brechner7, Pouliquen SylvieORCID8, Purkey Sarah1, Scanderbeg Megan1, Suga Toshio9, Wijffels Susan7, Zilberman Nathalie1, Bakker Dorothee10, Baringer Molly11, Belbeoch Mathieu12, Bittig Henry C.2, Boss Emmanuel13, Calil Paulo14, Carse Fiona15, Carval ThierryORCID8, Chai Fei16, Conchubhair Diarmuid Ó.17, D’ortenzio Fabrizio2, Dall’olmo Giorgio18, Desbruyeres DamienORCID8, Fennel Katja19, Fer Ilker20, Ferrari Raffaele21, Forget Gael21, Freeland Howard22, Fujiki Tetsuichi23, Gehlen Marion24, Greenan Blair25, Hallberg Robert26, Hibiya Toshiyuki27, Hosoda Shigeki23, Jayne Steven7, Jochum Markus28, Johnson Gregory C.29, Kang Kiryong30, Kolodziejczyk NicolasORCID31, Körtzinger Arne32, Traon Pierre-Yves Le33, Lenn Yueng-Djern34, Maze GuillaumeORCID8, Mork Kjell Arne35, Morris Tamaryn36, Nagai Takeyoshi37, Nash Jonathan5, Garabato Alberto Naveira4, Olsen Are20, Pattabhi Rama Rao38, Prakash Satya38, Riser Stephen39, Schmechtig CatherineORCID40, Schmid Claudia11, Shroyer Emily5, Sterl Andreas21, 41, Sutton Philip22, 42, Talley Lynne1, Tanhua Toste32, Thierry VirginieORCID8, Thomalla Sandy43, Toole John7, Troisi Ariel44, Trull Thomas W.6, Turton Jon15, Velez-Belchi Pedro Joaquin45, Walczowski Waldemar46, Wang Haili47, Wanninkhof Rik11, Waterhouse Amy F.1, Waterman Stephanie48, Watson Andrew49, Wilson Cara50, Wong Annie P. S.39, Xu Jianping16, Yasuda Ichiro51
Affiliation(s) 1 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA, United States
2 : French National Center for Scientific Research, Villefranche Oceanographic Laboratory, Sorbonne Université, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
3 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States
4 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
5 : College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States
6 : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Hobart, TAS, Australia
7 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
8 : Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Brest, France
9 : Department of Geophysics, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan
10 : School of Environmental Sciences, Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom
11 : Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Miami, FL, United States
12 : JCOMMOPS, Brest, France
13 : School of Marine Sciences, The University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States
14 : Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Geesthacht, Germany
15 : UK Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
16 : State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics, Second Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Hangzhou, China
17 : Irish Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
18 : Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom
19 : Department of Oceanography, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
20 : Physical Oceanography, Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
21 : Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States
22 : Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Sidney, BC, Canada
23 : Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
24 : Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement/Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
25 : Bedford Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
26 : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, United States
27 : Graduate School of Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
28 : Neils Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
29 : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, Seattle, WA, United States
30 : Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul, South Korea
31 : CNRS-IRD-Ifremer, LOPS Laboratory, University of Brest, Brest, France
32 : Helmholtz-Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel, Kiel, Germany
33 : Mercator-Ocean, Brest, France
34 : School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom
35 : Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, Norway
36 : Marine Research Unit, South African Weather Service, Cape Town, South Africa
37 : Graduate School of Marine Science and Technology, Ocean Sciences, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo, Japan
38 : Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad, India
39 : School of Oceanography, College of the Environment, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States
40 : French National Center for Scientific Research, OSU Ecce Terra, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France
41 : Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, Netherlands
42 : National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research, Auckland, New Zealand
43 : Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa
44 : Servício de Hídrografia Naval, Buenos Aires, Argentina
45 : Instituto Espanol de Oceanografia, Canary Islands, Spain
46 : Institute of Oceanology Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
47 : State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
48 : Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
49 : Earth System Science Group, College of Life and Environmental Science, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
50 : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Grove, CA, United States
51 : Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-08 , Vol. 6 , N. 439 , P. 28p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00439
WOS© Times Cited 234
Keyword(s) Argo, floats, global, ocean, warming, circulation, temperature, salinity

The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i) improve Argo’s global coverage and value beyond the original design, (ii) extend Argo to span the full ocean depth, (iii) add biogeochemical sensors for improved understanding of oceanic cycles of carbon, nutrients, and ecosystems, and (iv) consider experimental sensors that might be included in the future, for example to document the spatial and temporal patterns of ocean mixing. For Core Argo and each of these enhancements, the past, present, and future progression along a path from experimental deployments to regional pilot arrays to global implementation is described. The objective is to create a fully global, top-to-bottom, dynamically complete, and multidisciplinary Argo Program that will integrate seamlessly with satellite and with other in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System (Legler et al., 2015). The integrated system will deliver operational reanalysis and forecasting capability, and assessment of the state and variability of the climate system with respect to physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems parameters. It will enable basic research of unprecedented breadth and magnitude, and a wealth of ocean-education and outreach opportunities.

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Roemmich Dean, Alford Matthew H., Claustre Hervé, Johnson Kenneth, King Brian, Moum James, Oke Peter, Owens W. Brechner, Pouliquen Sylvie, Purkey Sarah, Scanderbeg Megan, Suga Toshio, Wijffels Susan, Zilberman Nathalie, Bakker Dorothee, Baringer Molly, Belbeoch Mathieu, Bittig Henry C., Boss Emmanuel, Calil Paulo, Carse Fiona, Carval Thierry, Chai Fei, Conchubhair Diarmuid Ó., D’ortenzio Fabrizio, Dall’olmo Giorgio, Desbruyeres Damien, Fennel Katja, Fer Ilker, Ferrari Raffaele, Forget Gael, Freeland Howard, Fujiki Tetsuichi, Gehlen Marion, Greenan Blair, Hallberg Robert, Hibiya Toshiyuki, Hosoda Shigeki, Jayne Steven, Jochum Markus, Johnson Gregory C., Kang Kiryong, Kolodziejczyk Nicolas, Körtzinger Arne, Traon Pierre-Yves Le, Lenn Yueng-Djern, Maze Guillaume, Mork Kjell Arne, Morris Tamaryn, Nagai Takeyoshi, Nash Jonathan, Garabato Alberto Naveira, Olsen Are, Pattabhi Rama Rao, Prakash Satya, Riser Stephen, Schmechtig Catherine, Schmid Claudia, Shroyer Emily, Sterl Andreas, Sutton Philip, Talley Lynne, Tanhua Toste, Thierry Virginie, Thomalla Sandy, Toole John, Troisi Ariel, Trull Thomas W., Turton Jon, Velez-Belchi Pedro Joaquin, Walczowski Waldemar, Wang Haili, Wanninkhof Rik, Waterhouse Amy F., Waterman Stephanie, Watson Andrew, Wilson Cara, Wong Annie P. S., Xu Jianping, Yasuda Ichiro (2019). On the Future of Argo: A Global, Full-Depth, Multi-Disciplinary Array. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(439), 28p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00439 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00509/62043/