SEASTAR: A Mission to Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics and Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes in Coastal, Shelf and Polar Seas

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Gommenginger Christine1, Chapron Bertrand2, Hogg Andy3, Buckingham Christian4, Fox-Kemper Baylor5, Eriksson Leif6, Soulat Francois7, Ubelmann Clément7, Ocampo-Torres Francisco8, Nardelli Bruno Buongiorno9, Griffin David10, Lopez-Dekker Paco11, Knudsen Per12, Andersen Ole12, Stenseng Lars13, Stapleton Neil14, Perrie William15, Violante-Carvalho Nelson16, Schulz-Stellenfleth Johannes17, Woolf David18, Isern-Fontanet Jordi19, Ardhuin FabriceORCID55, Klein Patrice55, Mouche AlexisORCID2, Pascual Ananda20, Capet Xavier21, Hauser Daniele22, Stoffelen Ad23, Morrow Rosemary24, Aouf Lotfi25, Breivik Øyvind26, 27, Fu Lee-Lueng28, Johannessen Johnny A.29, Aksenov Yevgeny1, Bricheno Lucy30, Hirschi Joel1, Martin Adrien Ch1, Martin Adiran P1, Nurser George1, Polton Jeff30, Wolf Judith30, Johnsen Harald31, Soloviev Alexander32, Jacobs Gregg A.33, Collard Fabrice34, Groom Steve35, Kudryavtsev Vladimir36, Wilkin John37, Navarro Victor38, Babanin Alex39, Martin Matthew40, Siddorn John40, Saulter Andrew40, Rippeth Tom41, Emery Bill42, Maximenko Nikolai43, Romeiser Roland44, Graber Hans45, Azcarate Aida Alvera45, Hughes Chris W.30, 46, Vandemark Doug47, Silva Jose Da48, Leeuwen Peter Jan Van49, 50, Naveira-Garabato Alberto51, Gemmrich Johannes52, Mahadevan Amala53, Marquez Jose54, Munro Yvonne54, Doody Sam54, Burbidge Geoff54
Affiliation(s) 1 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
2 : Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer, Brest, France
3 : Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia
4 : Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Brest, France
5 : Department of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States
6 : Department of Space Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden
7 : Collecte Localisation Satellites, Toulouse, France
8 : Centro de Investigación Científica y de Educación Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Mexico
9 : Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bologna, Italy
10 : Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Canberra, ACT, Australia
11 : Department of Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
12 : Department of Geodesy, DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
13 : Department of Planning, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
14 : Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Salisbury, United Kingdom
15 : Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS, Canada
16 : Program of Ocean Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
17 : Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht – Centre for Materials and Coastal Research, Geesthacht, Germany
18 : School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
19 : Institut de Ciencies del Mar, Barcelona, Spain
20 : Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats, Esporles, Spain
21 : Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d’Océanographie et du Climat Expérimentations et Approches Numériques, Paris, France
22 : Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales, Guyancourt, France
23 : Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, De Bilt, Netherlands
24 : Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, Toulouse, France
25 : Météo-France, Toulouse, France
26 : Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway
27 : Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
28 : NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, La Cañada Flintridge, CA, United States
29 : Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen, Norway
30 : National Oceanography Centre, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
31 : Northern Research Institute, Tromsø, Norway
32 : Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, United States
33 : United States Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, United States
34 : OceanDataLab, Brest, France
35 : Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom
36 : Satellite Oceanography Laboratory, Russian State Hydrometeorological University, Saint Petersburg, Russia
37 : Department of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, United States
38 : Starlab, Barcelona, Spain
39 : Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia
40 : Met Office, Exeter, United Kingdom
41 : School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom
42 : Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States
43 : School of Ocean and Earth Science an Technology, International Pacific Research Center, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI, United States
44 : Department of Ocean Sciences, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States
45 : GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
46 : Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom
47 : College of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH, United States
48 : Departamento de Geociências, Ambiente e Ordenamento do Território, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
49 : Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom
50 : Department of Meteorology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, United States
51 : Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
52 : Department of Physics and Astronomy, School of Earth and Ocean Science, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada
53 : Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA, United States
54 : Airbus Defence and Space Ltd., Portsmouth, United Kingdom
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-08 , Vol. 6 , N. 457 , P. 7p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00457
WOS© Times Cited 6
Keyword(s) satellite, air sea interactions, upper ocean dynamics, submesoscale, coastal, marginal ice zone, radar, along-track interferometry
Abstract

High-resolution satellite images of ocean color and sea surface temperature reveal an abundance of ocean fronts, vortices and filaments at scales below 10 km but measurements of ocean surface dynamics at these scales are rare. There is increasing recognition of the role played by small scale ocean processes in ocean-atmosphere coupling, upper-ocean mixing and ocean vertical transports, with advanced numerical models and in situ observations highlighting fundamental changes in dynamics when scales reach 1 km. Numerous scientific publications highlight the global impact of small oceanic scales on marine ecosystems, operational forecasts and long-term climate projections through strong ageostrophic circulations, large vertical ocean velocities and mixed layer re-stratification. Small-scale processes particularly dominate in coastal, shelf and polar seas where they mediate important exchanges between land, ocean, atmosphere and the cryosphere, e.g., freshwater, pollutants. As numerical models continue to evolve toward finer spatial resolution and increasingly complex coupled atmosphere-wave-ice-ocean systems, modern observing capability lags behind, unable to deliver the high-resolution synoptic measurements of total currents, wind vectors and waves needed to advance understanding, develop better parameterizations and improve model validations, forecasts and projections. SEASTAR is a satellite mission concept that proposes to directly address this critical observational gap with synoptic two-dimensional imaging of total ocean surface current vectors and wind vectors at 1 km resolution and coincident directional wave spectra. Based on major recent advances in squinted along-track Synthetic Aperture Radar interferometry, SEASTAR is an innovative, mature concept with unique demonstrated capabilities, seeking to proceed toward spaceborne implementation within Europe and beyond.

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Gommenginger Christine, Chapron Bertrand, Hogg Andy, Buckingham Christian, Fox-Kemper Baylor, Eriksson Leif, Soulat Francois, Ubelmann Clément, Ocampo-Torres Francisco, Nardelli Bruno Buongiorno, Griffin David, Lopez-Dekker Paco, Knudsen Per, Andersen Ole, Stenseng Lars, Stapleton Neil, Perrie William, Violante-Carvalho Nelson, Schulz-Stellenfleth Johannes, Woolf David, Isern-Fontanet Jordi, Ardhuin Fabrice, Klein Patrice, Mouche Alexis, Pascual Ananda, Capet Xavier, Hauser Daniele, Stoffelen Ad, Morrow Rosemary, Aouf Lotfi, Breivik Øyvind, Fu Lee-Lueng, Johannessen Johnny A., Aksenov Yevgeny, Bricheno Lucy, Hirschi Joel, Martin Adrien Ch, Martin Adiran P, Nurser George, Polton Jeff, Wolf Judith, Johnsen Harald, Soloviev Alexander, Jacobs Gregg A., Collard Fabrice, Groom Steve, Kudryavtsev Vladimir, Wilkin John, Navarro Victor, Babanin Alex, Martin Matthew, Siddorn John, Saulter Andrew, Rippeth Tom, Emery Bill, Maximenko Nikolai, Romeiser Roland, Graber Hans, Azcarate Aida Alvera, Hughes Chris W., Vandemark Doug, Silva Jose Da, Leeuwen Peter Jan Van, Naveira-Garabato Alberto, Gemmrich Johannes, Mahadevan Amala, Marquez Jose, Munro Yvonne, Doody Sam, Burbidge Geoff (2019). SEASTAR: A Mission to Study Ocean Submesoscale Dynamics and Small-Scale Atmosphere-Ocean Processes in Coastal, Shelf and Polar Seas. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(457), 7p. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00457 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00510/62121/