Selection of Vibrio crassostreae relies on a plasmid expressing a type 6 secretion system cytotoxic for host immune cells

Type Article
Date 2020-10
Language English
Author(s) Piel Damien1, 2, Bruto Maxime2, James Adele1, 2, Labreuche Yannick1, 2, Lambert Christophe6, Janicot Adrian2, Chenivesse Sabine2, Petton Bruno1, 3, Wegner K. Mathias4, Stoudmann Candice5, Blokesch Melanie5, Le Roux Frederique1, 2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, Unité Physiologie Fonctionnelle des Organismes Marins, ZI de la Pointe du Diable, C 10070 F‐29280 Plouzané, France
2 : Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 8227, Integrative Biology of Marine Models, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CS 90074 F‐29688 Roscoff cedex ,France
3 : Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR 6539 CNRS UBO IRD IFREMER – Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Technopôle Brest‐Iroise – Rue Dumont d'Urville F‐29280 Plouzané ,France
4 : AWI ‐ Alfred Wegener Institut ‐ Helmholtz‐Zentrum für Polar‐ und Meeresforschung, Coastal Ecology, Waddensea Station Sylt, Hafenstrasse 43 25992 List, Germany
5 : Laboratory of Molecular MicrobiologyGlobal Health Institute, School of Life Sciences, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) CH‐1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
6 : Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR 6539 CNRS UBO IRD IFREMER – Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Technopôle Brest‐Iroise – Rue Dumont d'Urville F‐29280 Plouzané ,France
Source Environmental Microbiology (1462-2912) (Wiley), 2020-10 , Vol. 22 , N. 10 , P. 4198-4211
DOI 10.1111/1462-2920.14776
WOS© Times Cited 8
Note Special Issue on Vibrios – from genes to ecosystems
Abstract

Pacific oyster mortality syndrome affects juveniles of Crassostrea gigas oysters and threatens the sustainability of commercial and natural stocks of this species. Vibrio crassostreae has been repeatedly isolated from diseased animals and the majority of the strains have been demonstrated to be virulent for oysters. In this study we showed that oyster farms exhibited a high prevalence of a virulence plasmid carried by V. crassostreae while oysters, at an adult stage, were reservoirs of this virulent population. The pathogenicity of V. crassostreae depends on a novel transcriptional regulator, which activates the bidirectional promoter of a Type 6 Secretion System (T6SS) genes cluster. Both the T6SS and a second chromosomal virulence factor, r5.7, are necessary for virulence but act independently to cause to hemocyte (oyster immune cell) cytotoxicity. A phylogenetically closely related T6SS was identified in V. aestuarianus and V. tapetis, which infect adult oysters and clams, respectively. We propose that hemocyte cytotoxicity, is a lethality trait shared by a broad range of mollusk pathogens and we speculate that T6SS was involved in parallel evolution of pathogen for mollusks.

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Piel Damien, Bruto Maxime, James Adele, Labreuche Yannick, Lambert Christophe, Janicot Adrian, Chenivesse Sabine, Petton Bruno, Wegner K. Mathias, Stoudmann Candice, Blokesch Melanie, Le Roux Frederique (2020). Selection of Vibrio crassostreae relies on a plasmid expressing a type 6 secretion system cytotoxic for host immune cells. Environmental Microbiology, 22(10), 4198-4211. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.14776 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00510/62129/