Toward the Integrated Marine Debris Observing System

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Maximenko Nikolai1, Corradi Paolo2, Law Kara Lavender3, Van Sebille Erik4, Garaba Shungudzemwoyo P.5, Lampitt Richard Stephen6, Galgani FrancoisORCID7, Martinez-Vicente Victor8, Goddijn-Murphy Lonneke9, Veiga Joana Mira10, Thompson Richard C.11, Maes Christophe12, Moller Delwyn13, Löscher Carolin Regina14, Addamo Anna Maria15, Lamson Megan R.16, Centurioni Luca R.17, Posth Nicole R.18, Lumpkin Rick19, Vinci Matteo20, Martins Ana Maria21, Pieper Catharina Diogo21, Isobe Atsuhiko22, Hanke Georg15, Edwards Margo23, Chubarenko Irina P.24, Rodriguez Ernesto25, Aliani Stefano26, Arias Manuel27, Asner Gregory P.28, Brosich Alberto20, Carlton James T.29, Chao Yi13, Cook Anna-Marie30, Cundy Andrew B.31, Galloway Tamara S.32, Giorgetti Alessandra20, Goni Gustavo Jorge19, Guichoux Yann33, Haram Linsey E.34, Hardesty Britta Denise35, Holdsworth Neil36, Lebreton Laurent37, Leslie Heather A.38, Macadam-Somer Ilan39, Mace Thomas40, Manuel Mark41, 42, Marsh Robert31, Martinez Elodie12, Mayor Daniel J., Le Moigne Morgan7, Molina Jack Maria Eugenia20, Mowlem Matt Charles6, Obbard Rachel W.43, Pabortsava Katsiaryna6, Robberson Bill30, Rotaru Amelia-Elena12, Ruiz Gregory M.34, Spedicato Maria Teresa44, Thiel Martin45, Turra Alexander46, Wilcox Chris35
Affiliation(s) 1 : International Pacific Research Center, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States
2 : European Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, Netherlands
3 : Sea Education Association, Falmouth, MA, United States
4 : Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
5 : Marine Sensor Systems, Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany
6 : National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, United Kingdom
7 : Département Océanographie et Dynamique des Écosystémes, Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer, Bastia, France
8 : Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom
9 : Environmental Research Institute, University of the Highlands and Islands, Thurso, United Kingdom
10 : Deltares, Delft, Netherlands
11 : University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom
12 : Laboratoire d'Océanographie Physique et Spatiale, Institute of Research for Development, Brest, France
13 : Remote Sensing Solutions, Los Angeles, CA, United States
14 : Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark
15 : European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy
16 : Hawai‘i Wildlife Fund, Paia, HI, United States
17 : Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
18 : Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management (IGN), University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
19 : Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA), Miami, FL, United States
20 : Sezione di Oceanografia, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy
21 : Department of Oceanography and Fisheries, University of the Azores, Ponta Delgada, Portugal
22 : Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
23 : Applied Research Laboratory, Hawaii Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States
24 : P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
25 : NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, United States
26 : CNR Institute of Marine Sciences, Lerici, Italy
27 : Argans, Plymouth, United Kingdom
28 : Center for Global Discovery and Conservation Science, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States
29 : Mystic Seaport Program, Williams College, Mystic, CT, United States
30 : Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), San Francisco, CA, United States
31 : School of Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom
32 : College of Life and Environmental Science, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom
33 : eOdyn, Plouzané, France
34 : Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, United States
35 : CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Hobart, TAS, Australia
36 : International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen, Denmark
37 : The Ocean Cleanup, Delft, Netherlands
38 : Department of Environment and Health, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
39 : Algalita Marine Research and Education, Long Beach, CA, United States
40 : Mace Geospatial, LLC, Menasha, WI, United States
41 : Freestone Environmental Services, Richland, WA, United States
42 : National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA, United States
43 : Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA, United States
44 : COISPA Tecnologia and Ricerca, Bari, Italy
45 : Facultad Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
46 : Oceanographic Institute, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2019-08 , Vol. 6 , N. 447 , P. 25p.
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2019.00447
WOS© Times Cited 141
Keyword(s) plastics, marine debris, sensor development, observing network, ecosystemstressors, maritime safety

Plastics and other artificial materials pose new risks to the health of the ocean. Anthropogenic debris travels across large distances and is ubiquitous in the water and on shorelines, yet, observations of its sources, composition, pathways, and distributions in the ocean are very sparse and inaccurate. Total amounts of plastics and other man-made debris in the ocean and on the shore, temporal trends in these amounts under exponentially increasing production, as well as degradation processes, vertical fluxes, and time scales are largely unknown. Present ocean circulation models are not able to accurately simulate drift of debris because of its complex hydrodynamics. In this paper we discuss the structure of the future integrated marine debris observing system (IMDOS) that is required to provide long-term monitoring of the state of this anthropogenic pollution and support operational activities to mitigate impacts on the ecosystem and on the safety of maritime activity. The proposed observing system integrates remote sensing and in situ observations. Also, models are used to optimize the design of the system and, in turn, they will be gradually improved using the products of the system. Remote sensing technologies will provide spatially coherent coverage and consistent surveying time series at local to global scale. Optical sensors, including high-resolution imaging, multi- and hyperspectral, fluorescence, and Raman technologies, as well as SAR will be used to measure different types of debris. They will be implemented in a variety of platforms, from hand-held tools to ship-, buoy-, aircraft-, and satellite-based sensors. A network of in situ observations, including reports from volunteers, citizen scientists and ships of opportunity, will be developed to provide data for calibration/validation of remote sensors and to monitor the spread of plastic pollution and other marine debris. IMDOS will interact with other observing systems monitoring physical, chemical, and biological processes in the ocean and on shorelines as well as the state of the ecosystem, maritime activities and safety, drift of sea ice, etc. The synthesized data will support innovative multi-disciplinary research and serve a diverse community of users.

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Maximenko Nikolai, Corradi Paolo, Law Kara Lavender, Van Sebille Erik, Garaba Shungudzemwoyo P., Lampitt Richard Stephen, Galgani Francois, Martinez-Vicente Victor, Goddijn-Murphy Lonneke, Veiga Joana Mira, Thompson Richard C., Maes Christophe, Moller Delwyn, Löscher Carolin Regina, Addamo Anna Maria, Lamson Megan R., Centurioni Luca R., Posth Nicole R., Lumpkin Rick, Vinci Matteo, Martins Ana Maria, Pieper Catharina Diogo, Isobe Atsuhiko, Hanke Georg, Edwards Margo, Chubarenko Irina P., Rodriguez Ernesto, Aliani Stefano, Arias Manuel, Asner Gregory P., Brosich Alberto, Carlton James T., Chao Yi, Cook Anna-Marie, Cundy Andrew B., Galloway Tamara S., Giorgetti Alessandra, Goni Gustavo Jorge, Guichoux Yann, Haram Linsey E., Hardesty Britta Denise, Holdsworth Neil, Lebreton Laurent, Leslie Heather A., Macadam-Somer Ilan, Mace Thomas, Manuel Mark, Marsh Robert, Martinez Elodie, Mayor Daniel J., Le Moigne Morgan, Molina Jack Maria Eugenia, Mowlem Matt Charles, Obbard Rachel W., Pabortsava Katsiaryna, Robberson Bill, Rotaru Amelia-Elena, Ruiz Gregory M., Spedicato Maria Teresa, Thiel Martin, Turra Alexander, Wilcox Chris (2019). Toward the Integrated Marine Debris Observing System. Frontiers In Marine Science, 6(447), 25p. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :