The penultimate deglaciation: protocol for Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 4 transient numerical simulations between 140 and 127 ka, version 1.0

Type Article
Date 2019-08
Language English
Author(s) Menviel Laurie1, Capron Emilie2, 3, Govin Aline4, Dutton Andrea5, Tarasov Lev6, Abe-Ouchi Ayako7, Drysdale Russell N.8, 9, Gibbard Philip L.10, Gregoire Lauren11, He Feng12, Ivanovic Ruza F.11, Kageyama Masa4, Kawamura Kenji13, 14, 15, Landais Amaelle4, Otto-Bliesner Bette L.16, Oyabu Ikumi13, Tzedakis Polychronis C.17, Wolff Eric18, Zhang Xu19, 20
Affiliation(s) 1 : Climate Change Research Center, PANGEA, the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
2 : Physics of Ice, Climate and Earth, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Tagensvej 8, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
3 : British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0ET, UK
4 : Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-Sur-Yvette, 91190, France
5 : Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, P.O. Box 112120, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
6 : Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St John's, Canada
7 : Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
8 : School of Geography, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia
9 : Laboratoire EDYTEM UMR CNRS 5204, Université Savoie Mont Blanc, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac, France
10 : Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1ER, UK
11 : School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK
12 : Center for Climatic Research, Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706, USA
13 : National Institute of Polar Research, Research Organizations of Information and Systems, 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan
14 : Department of Polar Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), 10-3 Midori-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8518, Japan
15 : Institute of Biogeosciences, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, 2-15 Natsushima-cho, Yokosuka 237-0061, Japan
16 : Climate and Global Dynamics Laboratory, National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO 80305, USA
17 : Environmental Change Research Centre, Department of Geography, University College London, London, UK
18 : Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EQ, UK
19 : Alfred Wegener Institute, Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, 27570 Bremerhaven, Germany
20 : Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems (Ministry of Education), College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000, China
Source Geoscientific Model Development (1991-959X) (Copernicus GmbH), 2019-08 , Vol. 12 , N. 8 , P. 3649-3685
DOI 10.5194/gmd-12-3649-2019
WOS© Times Cited 19

The penultimate deglaciation (PDG, ∼138–128 thousand years before present, hereafter ka) is the transition from the penultimate glacial maximum (PGM) to the Last Interglacial (LIG, ∼129–116 ka). The LIG stands out as one of the warmest interglacials of the last 800 000 years (hereafter kyr), with high-latitude temperature warmer than today and global sea level likely higher by at least 6 m. Considering the transient nature of the Earth system, the LIG climate and ice-sheet evolution were certainly influenced by the changes occurring during the penultimate deglaciation. It is thus important to investigate, with coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), the climate and environmental response to the large changes in boundary conditions (i.e. orbital configuration, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, ice-sheet geometry and associated meltwater fluxes) occurring during the penultimate deglaciation.

A deglaciation working group has recently been set up as part of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 4, with a protocol to perform transient simulations of the last deglaciation (19–11 ka; although the protocol covers 26–0 ka). Similar to the last deglaciation, the disintegration of continental ice sheets during the penultimate deglaciation led to significant changes in the oceanic circulation during Heinrich Stadial 11 (∼136–129 ka). However, the two deglaciations bear significant differences in magnitude and temporal evolution of climate and environmental changes.

Here, as part of the Past Global Changes (PAGES)-PMIP working group on Quaternary interglacials (QUIGS), we propose a protocol to perform transient simulations of the penultimate deglaciation under the auspices of PMIP4. This design includes time-varying changes in orbital forcing, greenhouse gas concentrations, continental ice sheets as well as freshwater input from the disintegration of continental ice sheets. This experiment is designed for AOGCMs to assess the coupled response of the climate system to all forcings. Additional sensitivity experiments are proposed to evaluate the response to each forcing. Finally, a selection of paleo-records representing different parts of the climate system is presented, providing an appropriate benchmark for upcoming model–data comparisons across the penultimate deglaciation.

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Menviel Laurie, Capron Emilie, Govin Aline, Dutton Andrea, Tarasov Lev, Abe-Ouchi Ayako, Drysdale Russell N., Gibbard Philip L., Gregoire Lauren, He Feng, Ivanovic Ruza F., Kageyama Masa, Kawamura Kenji, Landais Amaelle, Otto-Bliesner Bette L., Oyabu Ikumi, Tzedakis Polychronis C., Wolff Eric, Zhang Xu (2019). The penultimate deglaciation: protocol for Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP) phase 4 transient numerical simulations between 140 and 127 ka, version 1.0. Geoscientific Model Development, 12(8), 3649-3685. Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :