Patterns of distribution, population genetics and ecological requirements of field-occurring resistant and susceptible Pseudosuccinea columella snails to Fasciola hepatica in Cuba

Type Article
Date 2019-10
Language English
Author(s) Alba Annia1, 2, Vázquez Antonio A.1, 3, Sánchez Jorge1, Lounnas Manon3, Pointier Jean-Pierre4, Hurtrez-Boussès Sylvie3, 5, Gourbal Benjamin2
Affiliation(s) 1 : Centro de Investigaciones, Diagnóstico y Referencia, Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Pedro Kourí”, Apartado Postal 601, Marianao 13, 11400, La Habana, Cuba
2 : IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, Perpignan, France
3 : Mivegec UMR UM, CNRS 5290 – IRD 224 Maladies Infectieuses et Vecteurs: Ecologie, Génétique, Evolution et Contrôle, Centre IRD, BP 64501, 34394, Montpellier, Cedex 5, France
4 : PSL Université Paris: EPHE- UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, 52 Avenue Paul Alduy, 66860, Perpignan, Cedex, France
5 : Département de Biologie-Ecologie (Faculté des Sciences) -cc 046- Université Montpellier, 4 Place Eugène Bataillon, 34095, Montpellier, Cedex 5, France
Source Scientific Reports (2045-2322) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2019-10 , Vol. 9 , N. 1 , P. 14359 (15p.)
DOI 10.1038/s41598-019-50894-7
WOS© Times Cited 9

Pseudosuccinea columella snails transmit the trematode Fasciola hepatica, but in Cuba, six naturally occurring populations successfully resist parasite infection. Here, we present an updated distribution of P. columella in Cuba; 68 positive sites with the earliest records more abundant in west-central Cuba and with east-central populations generally corresponding to the newest samples. No records were found farther east. The IPA site reported 10.5% prevalence of F. hepatica-infected snails. Population genetics, studied through microsatellites, showed low allelic and multilocus genotypic richness (MLGT), mainly in susceptible populations, strong deviations from panmixia and high self-fertilization rates. Susceptible individuals were grouped in one major cluster containing the majority of MLGT, and two independent clusters grouped the MLGT of resistant individuals from western and central populations, respectively. From these, we propose that several introductions of P. columella occurred in Cuba, primarily in the west, with the early arrivals deriving on the resistant populations. A more recent introduction of susceptible P. columella carrying MLGT T and Y may have occurred, where the latter spread quickly through the island and possibly increase the risk of parasite transmission in Cuba since all snails naturally infected with F. hepatica were carriers of the MLGT Y. Interestingly, even though resistant populations are highly diverse and are likely the oldest within Cuba, they are only found in six localities characterized by soft (total hardness, TH = 6.3 ± 1.03°d) and slightly acidic (pH = 6.2 ± 0.12) waters with low richness in snail species (3.2 ± 1.02). This tendency was also observed in a two-year follow-up ecological study that was conducted on a farm where both phenotypes occurred in sympatry; colonization events by resistant over susceptible snails coincided with a reduction in the pH and TH of the water. A comparison of life traits in susceptible and resistant isolates reared at two different pH/TH conditions (5.9/4°d or 7.8/14°d) showed that low pH/TH negatively affects P. columella, irrespective of the phenotype. However, evidence of higher tolerance (higher survival, life expectancy, egg viability) to such conditions was observed in resistant isolates. Finally, we speculate that the limited distribution of resistant populations might be related to a better exploitation of sites that are less suitable to snails (thus, with lower competition), rather than to a differential ecological restriction to specific environmental conditions from susceptible P. columella.

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Alba Annia, Vázquez Antonio A., Sánchez Jorge, Lounnas Manon, Pointier Jean-Pierre, Hurtrez-Boussès Sylvie, Gourbal Benjamin (2019). Patterns of distribution, population genetics and ecological requirements of field-occurring resistant and susceptible Pseudosuccinea columella snails to Fasciola hepatica in Cuba. Scientific Reports, 9(1), 14359 (15p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :