Biomimetic Approaches for the Development of New Antifouling Solutions: Study of Incorporation of Macroalgae and Sponge Extracts for the Development of New Environmentally-Friendly Coatings
|Author(s)||Sánchez-Lozano Ilse1, Hernández-Guerrero Claudia Judith1, Muñoz-Ochoa Mauricio1, Hellio Claire2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional S/N. Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, 23096 La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico
2 : Univ Brest, CNRS, IRD, Ifremer, LEMAR, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, F-29280 Plouzané, France
|Source||International Journal Of Molecular Sciences (1422-0067) (MDPI AG), 2019-10 , Vol. 20 , N. 19 , P. 4863 (18p.)|
|Note||This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomimetics and Biotechnology: Bioinspiration for the Development of Scientific Innovation|
|Keyword(s)||adhesion, algae, antifouling, biofilm, extracts, field assays, sponges, Haliclona caerulea, Laurencia gardneri, Sargassum horridum, Ircinia sp|
Biofouling causes major economic losses in the maritime industry. In our site study, the Bay of La Paz (Gulf of California), biofouling on immersed structures is a major problem and is treated mostly with copper-based antifouling paints. Due to the known environmental effect of such treatments, the search for environmentally friendly alternatives in this zone of high biodiversity is a priority to ensure the conservation and protection of species. The aim of this work was to link chemical ecology to marine biotechnology: indeed, the natural defense of macroalgae and sponge was evaluated against biofoulers (biofilm and macrofoulers) from the same geographical zone, and some coatings formulation was done for field assays. Our approach combines in vitro and field bioassays to ensure the selection of the best AF agent prospects. The 1st step consisted of the selection of macroalgae (5 species) and sponges (2 species) with surfaces harboring a low level of colonizers; then extracts were prepared and assayed for toxicity against Artemia, activity towards key marine bacteria involved in biofilm formation in the Bay of La Paz, and the potency to inhibit adhesion of macroorganisms (phenoloxidase assays). The most active and non-toxic extracts were further studied for biofouling activity in the adhesion of the bacteria involved in biofilm formation and through incorporation in marine coatings which were immersed in La Paz Bay during 40 days. In vitro assays demonstrated that extracts of Laurencia gardneri, Sargassum horridum (macroalgae), Haliclona caerulea and Ircinia sp. (sponges) were the most promising. The field test results were of high interest as the best formulation were composed of extracts of H. caerulea and S. horridum and led to a reduction of 32% of biofouling compared with the control.